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liquid-solid phase transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Erosion of solid surfaces can be brought about solely by liquids in two ways: from damage induced by formation and subsequent collapse of voids or cavities within the liquid, and from high-velocity impacts between a solid surface and liquid droplets. The former process is called...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a particularly important feature is the CaO/SiO 2 ratio and its effect on the quantities of low-temperature phases to be expected. Oxidation and Reduction Behavior As for melting or solid-liquid reactions, the thermodynamic calculations of gas-solid reactions are a powerful tool for describing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Particle Impingement on Ductile Materials , Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. Erosion by Liquid and Solid Impact , University of Cambridge , 1983 , p 38-1 to 38-10 55. Antonov M. and Hussainova I. , Cermets Surface Transformation under Erosive and Abrasive Wear , Tribol. Int. , Vol 43...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... overload fracture can be influenced by various time- or temperature-dependent mechanisms, such as fatigue, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), liquid-metal embrittlement, solid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen embrittlement, and creep. In addition, transgranular cracks also can, at some point, follow a grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... mechanical behavior of plastic materials. However, viscoelasticity is primarily the term used for solid polymers, while rheologic terminology would be used to describe the flow of liquid polymers. One of the most important reasons for understanding the viscoelastic nature of plastic materials relates...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the nickel-iron matrix Deposition of graphite on the alloy surface in different orientations Growth of graphite into the metal phase by carbon atoms from the solid solution, attaching to graphite planes growing vertical to the metal surface Destruction of the metal phase by the inward-growing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hydrogen embrittlement, liquid metal embrittlement, solid metal embrittlement, oxidation or reduction potentially in the grain boundaries, radiation embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking. Because the appearance of IG fracture is relatively easy to recognize, and because the causes are fairly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the effects of various material- and process-related parameters on residual stress, distortion control, cracking, and microstructure/property relationships as they relate to various types of failure. It discusses phase transformations that occur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article introduces some of the general sources of heat treating problems with particular emphasis on problems caused by the actual heat treating process and the significant thermal and transformation stresses within a heat treated part. It addresses the design and material factors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... elastic energy, as in crack propagation, or from stored chemical-free energy, as in phase transformation. Experimental Stress Analysis Experimental stress analysis can be done by several methods, all of which may be valuable in determining machine loads and component stresses that can cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface in different orientations Growth of graphite into the metal phase by carbon atoms from the solid solution, attaching to graphite planes growing vertical to the metal surface Destruction of the metal phase by the inward-growing graphite under transfer of metal particles into the “coke” layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... crystal phases and structures in solid materials. failure analysis infrared spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy polymer structure thermal analysis X-ray diffraction FAILURE OF POLYMERIC materials is the result of a very complex process. This article introduces procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... blowers—is an important phase of on-site examination. It is usually helpful for the individual making the on-site examination to have an assortment of plastic bags or paper envelopes in which samples can be placed. Identification of each sample, with its location and orientation marked on photographs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Little distortion evident • Intergranular or transgranular • May relate to notches at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion • Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion• Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating• Multiple intergranular cracks• Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge shaped cracks at grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... sampling techniques, all involving either transmission or reflection of the infrared energy, can be used to analyze the sample material. This allows the evaluation of materials in all forms, including hard solids, powders, liquids, and gases. Depending on the spectrometer and the corresponding accessories...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... spheroidization. This change in microstructure in 1¼ Cr steel typically occurs only at elevated temperatures but below the critical transformation temperature, which is near 720 °C (1330 °F). Complete phase transformation can occur above this temperature. There were no signs of phase transformation, except where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... such as bainite or martensite, in which the solubility of hydrogen is lower, is most susceptible because the rapid cooling necessary for the austenite-to-martensite transformation traps the hydrogen in a state of supersaturation in the hard phase. For this reason, rapid cooling rates, sometimes driven...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with engineering materials. Table 1 provides some common examples, sorted by glass transition temperature ( T g ), which is the temperature at which the plastic softens from a rigid glass to a viscous liquid or leathery solid, depending on whether it crystallizes. It can be seen from Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... shows the direction of crack propagation. Fig. 7 Origin of a rapid brittle fracture in a steel shaft In the case of erosion, for example, by cavitation or erosion-corrosion of a pipe in which a liquid is flowing under turbulent conditions, the characteristic teardrop shape of cavities...