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liquid-solid contraction

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on the fixture surface and that this could have penetrated the stainless steel in the presence of tensile thermal-contraction stresses. The cracks in the weldments were a form of liquid-metal embrittlement caused by contact with superficially melted copper from the fixture and subsequent grain-boundary attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of scale break loose and are carried into the turbine by the steam. The scale is normally a fine powder by the time it reaches the turbine where it impinges on the turbine blades causing erosion [ 14 , 15 ]. The pits created by solid particles have more irregular edges than those created by liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... cycling between room temperature and liquid helium temperature. The experimenters adjusted the thermal contraction of the epoxy matrix to match that of the cable by adding appropriate amounts of calcium carbonate, talc, or asbestos fillers. They used a model for predicting thermal contraction in polymer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... chromatography/mass spectrometry is normally not possible because polymers are typically high-molecular-weight materials that do not vaporize. GPC, also known as size-exclusion chromatography, separates sample molecules on the basis of their physical size. It utilizes a liquid mobile phase and a solid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was based on results from both visual and liquid penetrant inspections of the outer surface of the header. The inner surface, where accessible, was also checked visually and by liquid penetrant inspection. The six other headers were inspected at selected locations, and no surface cracks were detected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the tubing. Furthermore, any type of debris present on the parts will tend to congregate at a crack site. Upon examination of liquid metal embrittled samples, one should see a complete coating of the liquid metal. In fact, the liquid metal is in such close contact with the solid that it is generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... used in the laboratory portion of the failure investigation are mentioned in the failure examples. The topics covered are creep, localized overheating, thermal-mechanical fatigue, high-cycle fatigue, fretting wear, erosive wear, high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, liquid metal embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... With this and with many other curing systems, the material begins with G″ > G′, and the material is fluid. As the curing reaction progresses, both G′ and G″ increase, but G′ increases at a greater rate and eventually exceeds G″. Beyond the gel point, the material is more solid that it is liquid. Often, it is still...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Power-generation plants use processes that occur without any particles present and involve only the transport of solutions or steam. In these cases, liquid forces on the solid surface, which are due to turbulence or droplet impacts, mechanically remove protective layers of corrosion products, thus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The most widely used inspection methods in the welding industry are visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiographic, ultrasonic, acoustic emission, eddy current, and the electric current perturbation technique. Each of these methods and techniques (within each method) has its own specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... shrinkage steps can take place. First, as the material phase goes from melt (liquid) to solid, a change in contraction rate occurs. Second, some polymers crystallize below the melting point, and there is a volume change upon crystallization. Crystalline regions have a lower coefficient of expansion than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and pitting corrosion. Impingement by solid particles may contribute to erosion-corrosion or accelerate corrosion in the various gaseous or molten environments. Oxidation Most metals and alloys are often oxidized on exposure to temperatures above 300 °C (570 °F) in environments containing more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Such deviations from the nominal composition are due to convection currents in the liquid, gravity effects, and redistribution of the solute during the formation of dendrites. Solute rejection at the solid-liquid interface during dendrite formation typically occurs during solidification; thus, a compositional...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or morphology of the craze and resolution of the details ( Ref 24 – 26 ). To study the structure of crazes, liquid sulfur was infused into crazes of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) ( Ref 24 ). The samples were quenched to room temperature under strain to prevent contraction of the craze structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... from coal-based thermal power plants. With coal as the fuel, there are two distinct technologies used for power generation: subcritical and supercritical. Supercritical is that state of a substance in which there is no clear distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase (i.e., it behaves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cracks, root cracks, lamellar tearing, delaminations, and fusion-line cracks. Transverse cracks in weld metal (No. 2, Fig. 3 ) are formed when the predominant contraction stresses are in the direction of the weld axis. Transverse cracks lie in a plane normal to the axis of the weld and are usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the casting material. The high operational stresses of the engine acting on a material discontinuity, such as microporosity in a web member, can produce cracking. Shrinkage Porosity As gray iron changes from a liquid to a solid, the volume decreases. However, the precipitation of the graphite during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with engineering materials. Table 1 provides some common examples, sorted by glass transition temperature ( T g ), which is the temperature at which the plastic softens from a rigid glass to a viscous liquid or leathery solid, depending on whether it crystallizes. It can be seen from Fig. 1...