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liquid-phase sintering

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of slags (of the same nature as the liquid phase formed in the refractories). The early book by Muan and Osborn ( Ref 2 ) is a reading requirement for new researchers in this field, as are the reviews by Kraner ( Ref 3 ) on phase diagrams for fired refractories and by Alper et al. ( Ref 4 ), on fusion-cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the effectiveness 3 of the sintering cycle. This is consistent with the absence of decarburization observed metallographically in the casting that exhibited sufficient bond strength. Fig. 6 Cobalt-carbon phase diagram, showing the effect of carbon in Lowering the liquidus and solidus temperature. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... considerations, and quality assurance. The emphasis is on the design and metallurgical aspects for the two main types of metal AM processes: powder-bed fusion (PBF) and directed-energy deposition (DED). The article also describes the processes involved in binder jet sintering, provides information on the design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Applications and Typical Products In the simplest terms, all plastics processing techniques involve three key steps: fluidizing (plasticating), shaping, and solidification. Raw materials are typically sourced as pellets or powders (thermoplastic) or as monomeric liquid and cross-linking agent (thermoset...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... shows the direction of crack propagation. Fig. 7 Origin of a rapid brittle fracture in a steel shaft In the case of erosion, for example, by cavitation or erosion-corrosion of a pipe in which a liquid is flowing under turbulent conditions, the characteristic teardrop shape of cavities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... For nickel-base alloys, Grabke et al. ( Ref 14 – 17 ) proposed six mechanisms: Carbon transfer from the gas phase and dissolution of carbon into the metal phase at oxide defect sites Formation of a supersaturated solution of carbon in the nickel-iron matrix Deposition of graphite on the alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... (such as might exist in a tightly closed crack) and is caused by selective removal and/or redeposition of metal by gas phase reactions with the atmosphere ( Ref 4 , 5 ). Finally, the flakes were similar in size to the apparent as-cast grain structure and were much larger than the austenite grain size produced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., for example, by cavitation or erosion-corrosion of a pipe in which a liquid is flowing under turbulent conditions, the characteristic teardrop shape of cavities is apparent at low magnification, as may be seen in Fig. 8 . Fig. 8 Elongated surface cavities on the inside surface of a 70-30 cupronickel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... blowers—is an important phase of on-site examination. It is usually helpful for the individual making the on-site examination to have an assortment of plastic bags or paper envelopes in which samples can be placed. Identification of each sample, with its location and orientation marked on photographs...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microstructure. The crack consists of numerous connected straight-line segments in the ferrite phase. Several subsurface cleavage cracks are also present. In comparison, a ductile impact fracture in a quenched and tempered carbon plate steel is shown in Fig. 3(a) . Note that the fracture surface exhibits a much...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Little distortion evident • Intergranular or transgranular • May relate to notches at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion • Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... all of the structure at first. Later, it may be useful to use a selective etchant that reveals only the phase or constituent of interest or at least produces strong contrast or color differences between two or more phases present, to improve the precision of microstructural measurements or to better...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion• Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating• Multiple intergranular cracks• Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge shaped cracks at grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of detecting surface discontinuities by magnetic-particle inspection, liquid penetrant inspection, and eddy-current testing. The major NDE methods for internal (volumetric) inspection in failure analysis also are described. eddy-current testing liquid penetrant inspection magnetic-particle inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... from coal-based thermal power plants. With coal as the fuel, there are two distinct technologies used for power generation: subcritical and supercritical. Supercritical is that state of a substance in which there is no clear distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase (i.e., it behaves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is to seal the plastic and a small amount of water in a high-pressure DSC pan and then measure in a normal manner ( Ref 22 ). The pan contains three phases (liquid and gaseous forms of water and polymer) and thus has but one degree of freedom by Gibb’s phase rule, namely temperature, because...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... force also oscillating to the extent that the surfaces lose contact in each cycle. This leads to a hammering effect, which is termed impact fatigue . In this case, the phase relationship between the two motions can be an important factor. Other terms that have been used to designate fretting-type...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surfaces. Adhesive wear, the type of wear that occurs between two mutually soluble materials, is also discussed, as is erosive wear, liquid impingement, and cavitation wear. The article also presents a procedure for failure analysis and provides a number of detailed examples, including jaw-type rock...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4