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liquid-metal system

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... also briefly reviews some commercial alloy systems in which liquid-metal-induced embrittlement or solid-metal-induced embrittlement has been documented and describes some examples of cracking due to these phenomena, either in manufacturing or in service. commercial alloy systems failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the characteristics of solid metal induced embrittlement (SMIE) and liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE). It describes the unique features that assist in arriving at a clear conclusion whether SMIE or LMIE is the most probable cause of the problem. The article briefly reviews some commercial alloy systems where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The failure mode of through-wall cracking of a butt weld in a 5083-O aluminum alloy piping system in an ethylene plant was identified as mercury liquid metal embrittlement. As a result of this finding, 226 of the more than 400 butt welds in the system were ultrasonically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , Time Effects of Erosion by Solid Particle Impingement on Ductile Materials , Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. Erosion by Liquid and Solid Impact , University of Cambridge , 1983 , p 38–1 to 38-10 50. Finnie I. , The Mechanism of Erosion of Ductile Metals , Proc. Third U. S. National Congress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... refractories and technical ceramics. They apply as well to the S + L reactions as to the solid S + G reactions. Liquids can be either slags or fluxes, molten salts, or molten metals, each presenting their own peculiarities. Slags are characterized by their basicity/acidity ratio (CaO/SiO 2 ratio either...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., made of 1 mm (0.04 in.) thick rolled strip and brazed onto the leading edge, resisted erosion quite effectively, but the unprotected base metal did not. Fig. 9 Two portions of a modified type 403 stainless steel steam turbine blade damaged by liquid impingement erosion. The portion at left...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... prior to their separation. Diffusion can occur in some systems (as already mentioned), but it is more common for liquid metal to be drawn into cracks by capillary action during the process of adsorption-induced crack growth. More details of the foregoing aspects of embrittlement, and on the effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the primary constituents of the waste stored in the tank. Failure Analysis The data from the macroscopic observations, fracture surface analysis, optical microscopy, and deposit analysis were integrated. Several possible causes of cracking were considered: (1) zinc-induced liquid metal embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Simulated Liquid-Droplet Erosion , Microstruct. Sci. , Vol 25 , 1998 , p 183 – 190 15. Woodford D.A. , Cavitation-Erosion-Induced Phase Transformation in Alloys , Metall. Trans. , Vol 3 , 1972 , p 1137 – 1145 16. Richman R.H. , McNaughton W.P. , and Rao A.S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and the tube OD and coil ID. As noted above, however, no liquid exists at the tube ID to absorb the heat from the gas flame. Heat dissipation from the hot coil ID occurs by conduction through the metal but is less by convection through the vapor than through the liquid. The presence of any sooty deposit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: magnetic-particle inspection of ferrous metals, liquid-penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and sometimes eddy-current inspection. All these tests are used to detect surface cracks and discontinuities. Radiography is used mainly for internal examination. A photographic record of the results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that sometimes collect just above the liquid level on a metal part that is partly immersed in an electrolyte. The deposits usually remain moist or are intermittently moist and dry. Where the liquid level fluctuates or where the liquid is agitated, the area of the metal that is intermittently wetted is called...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... is a synergistic form of attack wherein liquid or gaseous erosion is assisted by corrosion and vice versa. The result is rapid, localized loss of metal. The greater the liquid velocity, the faster the deterioration. It is significant that the metal loss was localized in areas where liquid velocity was greatest...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., heat treatment, geometry, surface roughness, residual stress, etc.), cavitation resistance depends largely on liquid property, flow speed, vibration characteristics, temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and so on. For certain materials, cavitation resistance is related to hardness, but for most metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to learn as much as possible from each failure. In any metallurgical evaluation, the general aim is to understand the root cause of the failure in terms of both the material and the boiler operation. To that end, estimates can sometimes be made of metal temperatures and implied boiler conditions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and historic interface levels were examined. Additionally, collecting data in a continuous strip from top to bottom also assessed the tank wall exposed to vapor space above the supernate (liquid). Thickness data were collected using the P-scan PS4-Lite automated ultrasonic system. The “T-scan” thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., by virtue of its physical size and location, is often difficult to detect. These factors combine to make localized corrosion mechanisms insidious. If undetected they can lead to catastrophic system failures. Certain environments induce specific corrosion failure modes. Hydrogen damage, liquid- and solid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., silicon, and copper. These additional elements are suggestive of the presence of erosion and/or corrosion debris from metallic components within the cooling system. The deposit that was scraped from the cylinder was found to contain primarily carbon and nickel, along with detectable iron, silicon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was to emphasize that severe metal loss only occurred in the vicinity of the SO 2 liquid inlet. The upper portion of the heat exchanger tubes and the surrounding tank performed adequately. The outer tubes are at approximately 383 K, while the incoming SO 2 liquid is at approximately 255 K. The boiling point...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... alloys are susceptible to embrittlement by some low-melting metals and alloys. Tin, lead, and zinc melt below the maximum service temperature of the turbine, which was 462 °C (864 °F). One Sn-Zn system had a eutectic melting point of less than 204 °C (400 °F). Such metals can cause liquid-metal...