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liquid-liquid contraction

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract A fuel-nozzle-support assembly showed transverse indications after fluorescent liquid-penetrant inspection of a repair-welded area at a fillet on the front side of the support neck adjacent to the mounting flange. Visual examination disclosed an irregular crack. The crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on the fixture surface and that this could have penetrated the stainless steel in the presence of tensile thermal-contraction stresses. The cracks in the weldments were a form of liquid-metal embrittlement caused by contact with superficially melted copper from the fixture and subsequent grain-boundary attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion failure occurred in a titanium clad tubesheet because of a corrosive tube-side gas-liquid mixture leaking through fatigue cracks in the seal welds at tube-to-tubesheet joints. The tubesheet was a carbon steel plate clad with titanium on the tube side face. The seal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of scale break loose and are carried into the turbine by the steam. The scale is normally a fine powder by the time it reaches the turbine where it impinges on the turbine blades causing erosion [ 14 , 15 ]. The pits created by solid particles have more irregular edges than those created by liquid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Liquid penetrant inspection of an ASTM A296 grade CA-15 residual heat removal pump impeller from a nuclear plant revealed a crack like indication that approximated the outer contour of the wear ring. Examination of a section containing the crack and three sections from near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... a “hot tear” as it was cast, and that this had gone undetected. A hot tear forms just above the solidus temperature if contraction of the casting is prevented by some kind of restraint, such as a core or a change of section thickness. There is no longer sufficient interdendritic liquid flow to relax...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was based on results from both visual and liquid penetrant inspections of the outer surface of the header. The inner surface, where accessible, was also checked visually and by liquid penetrant inspection. The six other headers were inspected at selected locations, and no surface cracks were detected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... pump failures to liquid metal embrittlement and stress-induced cracking. They also claim that mercury globules were present in the cracks of the metallographic specimen. It is not unusual, however, that mercury droplets were found in the cracks since mercury flows through the tubing. Furthermore, any...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... along the length of the tank and around both end caps, following the girth welds that connect them to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... were to meet the following specifications: ASTM Standard B 398, “Aluminum-Alloy 6201-T81 for Electrical Purposes” ASTM Standard B 399, “Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum-Alloy 6201-T81 Conductors” Liquid Penetrant Inspection Liquid penetrant inspection of suspected wire joint locations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... in the modules, the relatively high moisture condition of the plywood could supply condensed water at the aluminum interface. Changing temperatures of the aluminum (hot days and cool nights) induced alternating vapor pressure gradients with liquid water condensing at the aluminum-plywood interface when...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface. These methods are discussed in more detail in the Section “Tools and Techniques in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. Nondestructive Testing Certain nondestructive tests must be used with caution to avoid altering evidence or creating confusing evidence. For example, liquid penetrant tests...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fracture area are presented in Fig. 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 . Both areas revealed the presence of aluminum and silicon, the principal constituents of A356 aluminum alloy. However, the hot tear area exhibited a much higher silicon-to-aluminum ratio compared with the overload fracture area. The liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... void formation, which is caused by contraction shrinkage when the liquid film cools. Although burning usually occurs during rolling or forging, it may not be observed until after heat treatment. Fig. 32 Severely overheated 1038 steel showing initial stage of burning. Ferrite (white) outlines...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ) during solidification and contraction of the metal, when there may eventually be insufficient liquid metal to feed the last remaining portions as they contract. A concave cavity thus forms at the top of the ingot because of metal shrinkage during solidification. The cavity usually forms in the shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... also be associated with the segregation of impurities. This is particularly so if they are connected with the central pipe which is formed in the upper regions of a steel ingot by contraction of the last portion of the liquid metal to solidify. In this particular instance, the laminations did not run...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , The Influence of Hydrodynamics on Erosion-Corrosion in Two-Phase Liquid-Particle Flow , Corrosion , Vol 45 ( No. 10 ), 1989 , p 793 – 804 24. Nesic S. and Postlethwaite J. , Relationship Between the Structure of Disturbed Flow and Erosion-Corrosion , Corrosion , Vol 46 ( No. 11...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... : 136 47. Kamdar M.H. , Liquid Metal Embrittlement , Corrosion , Vol 13 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1987 , p 171 – 184 48. Fontana M.G. and Greene N.D. , Corrosion Engineering , 2nd ed. , McGraw-Hill , 1978 , p 294 49. Bradley E.F. , Ed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the basket. During spinning, the crystals were washed by town's water from a single outlet pipe fitted at one side of the centre of the basket and sterilised by steam from a multi-outlet pipe fitted at the other side. The liquid, which was forced through the filter cloth, was collected on the inside...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... markings showing direction of liquid metal flow (light alloys) Flow marks D 120: Surface roughness D 121 Depth of surface roughness is approximately that of the dimensions of the sand grains Rough casting surface D 122 Depth of surface roughness is greater than that of the sand...