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liquid-droplet erosion

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Early stage of liquid-droplet erosion of Stellite 6B More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 16 Liquid droplet erosion from a low-pressure steam turbine blade that failed under fatigue loading. (a) Photograph of leading-edge airfoil, suction side. The lower portion of the airfoil (left) was 400-series stainless steel alloy; the upper portion of the airfoil (right) was clad More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Erosion of a solid surface can be brought about by liquid droplet impingement (LDI), which is defined as "progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continued exposure to erosion by liquid droplets." In this article, the emphasis is placed on the damage mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Erosion of solid surfaces can be brought about solely by liquids in two ways: from damage induced by formation and subsequent collapse of voids or cavities within the liquid, and from high-velocity impacts between a solid surface and liquid droplets. The former process is called...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... droplets. This is sometimes more easily seen with a magnifying glass or low magnification microscope. The damage done to the subsequent blade rows will diminish as the distance from the admission point increases. This will not necessarily be the case with liquid droplet erosion as will be discussed later...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Droplet or jet diameters also vary from about 0.1 to 5 mm (0.004 to 0.2 in.). Droplets can be generated by spray nozzles, vibrating hollow needles, or rotating disks with water fed onto their surface. The typical droplet or jet diameter and the volume of liquid impacting the specimen per unit time should...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... damage. Some examples of erosive wear failures are given in the following sections on abrasive erosion, liquid impingement erosion, cavitation, and erosion-corrosion. Further discussion can be found in the articles “ Abrasive Wear Failures ,” “ Corrosive Wear Failures ,” and “ Liquid Droplet Impingement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... this reduces the heat-transfer capability of the surface. An alternative method is the use of baffles to channel gas flow away from critical areas. Liquid Impingement Erosion Erosion can take place in a liquid medium even without the presence of solid abrasive particles in that medium. Liquid droplets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (fuel and dilution air), and air/fuel flow rates, are determinants of the temperature distribution of combustion. Significant local temperature excursions have escaped detection by engine monitoring systems. For example, liquid hydrocarbon droplets in a gaseous fuel have been implicated in failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... attributed the mercury diffusion pump failures to liquid metal embrittlement and stress-induced cracking. They also claim that mercury globules were present in the cracks of the metallographic specimen. It is not unusual, however, that mercury droplets were found in the cracks since mercury flows through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... machines; tillage tools; machine parts subjected to grinding operations; conveyors of mineral particles; sliding systems with hard particles in between Solid particle/droplet erosion Slurry pipelines; centrifugal pumps for slurry; turbine blades; nozzles for sand blasters Cavitation erosion Turbine...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Power-generation plants use processes that occur without any particles present and involve only the transport of solutions or steam. In these cases, liquid forces on the solid surface, which are due to turbulence or droplet impacts, mechanically remove protective layers of corrosion products, thus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to determine the cause and suggest corrective action. The causes of failures include tube rupture, corrosion or scaling, fatigue, erosion, and stress-corrosion cracking. The article also describes the procedures for conducting a failure analysis. boilers corrosion embrittlement erosion failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... from coal-based thermal power plants. With coal as the fuel, there are two distinct technologies used for power generation: subcritical and supercritical. Supercritical is that state of a substance in which there is no clear distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase (i.e., it behaves...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: magnetic-particle inspection of ferrous metals, liquid-penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and sometimes eddy-current inspection. All these tests are used to detect surface cracks and discontinuities. Radiography is used mainly for internal examination. A photographic record of the results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... liquid. Fig. 5 A metal particle in the 1977 deposit. The steel appears to be an alloy steel and the shape of the porosity demonstrates that this particle formed directly from liquid steel, e.g., from weld spatter or in thermal cutting. The material between the metal particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and prevention of several types of failures in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “ Stress-Corrosion Cracking ,” “ Liquid Metal and Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement ,” “ Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement ,” “ Corrosive Wear Failures ,” “ Biological Corrosion Failures ,” and “ High...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metals, by increasing the lubricant viscosity, and by increasing the pressure in the system. Entrained air or water in oil can increase the likelihood of cavitation. More information of this phenomenon is available in the article “Liquid-Impact Erosion ” in this Volume. Foreign Particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... size and location, is often difficult to detect. These factors combine to make localized corrosion mechanisms insidious. If undetected, they can lead to catastrophic system failures. Certain environments induce specific corrosion failure modes. Hydrogen damage, liquid- and solid-metal-induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the material is stressed above or below any ductile-to-brittle transition temperature below which relatively low-energy fractures can occur. Other degradation mechanisms, such as corrosion and oxidation; stress corrosion; erosion from flowing gases, liquids, and solids; hydrogen damage; creep and stress...