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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... severe form of erosion corrosion. Cavitation damage to the protective oxide film caused the zirconium to lose its normally outstanding corrosion resistance. The root cause of the impeller failure is most likely the introduction of excessive air into the pump due to low liquid level, a bad seal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... through a “window” that separates the detector from the vacuum chamber of the SEM, penetrate the lithium-infused single-crystal silicon chip, and are absorbed. The major result of this conversion of energy is in the production of electron/hole pairs within the silicon. The interaction can also result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... × 10 −10 6.1 × 10 −10 6.0 × 10 −10 Tribology tests were performed with the help of a friction machine according to a friction pattern disk shoe both at dry friction and in a liquid lubricant medium under the following conditions: sliding speed of 0.79 m/s, pressure from 0.5 to 3.5 MPa...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 195 0.19 0.11 34 Polyarylate (PAR) 155 310 … … 0.22 0.125 31 Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) 311 590 220 430 … … 5 Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) 183 360 130 265 0.42 0.24 22 Nylon 6 65 150 75 165 0.23 0.13 25 Nylon 6/6 90 195 75 165 0.25 40 Amorphous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) were analyzed to determine if any of the failures could have been avoided or at least predicted. The failures represent a diversity of applications involving typical materials, primarily stainless steel and copper alloys, in contact with a variety of liquids, chemistries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... signal is used to determine crystal structure and orientation ( Ref 5 ). More information concerning the use of these signals is available in Ref 6 . Vacuum System All SEMs require a vacuum system to allow an electron beam to be produced and directed onto the target material. The constraints...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., complex alkali-iron trisulfates form on the external surfaces of tubes (reheater and superheater tubes) in the temperature range of 540 to 700 °C (1000 to 1290 °F). Reid ( Ref 67 ) proposed that liquid trisulfates solubilize the protective iron oxide scale and expose the base metal to oxygen, which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (solids, S, + liquid, L, type of reaction), but atmosphere corrosion also occurs under specific circumstances (under reducing or oxido-reducing conditions), as, for example, under attack from carbon monoxide or alkalis and other condensable gases (S + gas, G, type of reaction). Corrosion of technical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis tools. This includes, but is not limited to, wafers, sheets, films, coatings, foils, chunks, powders, wires, tubes, printed circuit boards, computer chips, and other whole or partial pieces of devices. While surface analysis tools are used to analyze solid surfaces, dried residues from liquids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... shows the direction of crack propagation. Fig. 7 Origin of a rapid brittle fracture in a steel shaft In the case of erosion, for example, by cavitation or erosion-corrosion of a pipe in which a liquid is flowing under turbulent conditions, the characteristic teardrop shape of cavities...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., sheets, films, coatings, foils, chunks, powders, wires, tubes, printed circuit boards, computer chips, and other whole or partial pieces of devices. While surface analysis tools are used to analyze solid surfaces, dried residues from liquids and even low-vapor-pressure oils and greases can also be looked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in many respects to the specimen current, charge collection techniques are used extensively in the semiconductor industry ( Ref 3 ) whilst the EBSP signal is used to determine crystal structure and orientation ( Ref 4 ). More information concerning the use of these signals is available ( Ref 5 ). Vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... acetate EVOH, EVAL, EVOL Ethylene-vinyl alcohol FEP Fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer FEP Tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene copolymer FF Furan formaldehyde HDPE High-density polyethylene HIPS High-impact polystyrene LCP LDPE Liquid crystal polymer Low-density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., viscous modulus, tan delta Temperature-dependent behavior, aging/degradation, solid-liquid interactions Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Weight-average molecular weight, molecular weight distribution Degradation, suitability of material for use Melt flow rate (MFR) Melt viscosity Degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., for example, by cavitation or erosion-corrosion of a pipe in which a liquid is flowing under turbulent conditions, the characteristic teardrop shape of cavities is apparent at low magnification, as may be seen in Fig. 8 . Fig. 8 Elongated surface cavities on the inside surface of a 70-30 cupronickel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., powders, liquids, and gases. Depending on the spectrometer and the corresponding accessories, most samples can be analyzed without significant preparation or alteration. In the analysis of polymeric materials, transmittance, reflectance, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) are the most common sampling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of detecting surface discontinuities by magnetic-particle inspection, liquid penetrant inspection, and eddy-current testing. The major NDE methods for internal (volumetric) inspection in failure analysis also are described. eddy-current testing liquid penetrant inspection magnetic-particle inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Care should be taken to avoid multiple JPEG compression steps or high-compression formats that can result in loss of image quality. Digital Cameras and Devices Digital cameras have features ideal for failure analysis work. Those include a liquid crystal diode display screen for display...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... features on a polymer surface Feature Optical Electron Probe Invention year 1590 1931 1983 Resolution:     XY 1000 nm 10 nm 1 nm     Z … … 0.01 nm Operating environment Air, liquid, vacuum Vacuum Air, liquid, vacuum Approximate cost >$100 >$50,000...