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liquid-crystal imaging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from the sample enter the detector and strike a single crystal of known material that has been selected on the basis of its atomic structure and lattice spacing. The angle of the incoming x-rays that are incident upon the crystal is changed in a serial manner, and as the crystal sweeps through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and the common methods of detecting surface discontinuities by magnetic-particle inspection, liquid penetrant inspection, and eddy-current testing. The major NDE methods for internal (volumetric) inspection in failure analysis also are described. eddy-current testing liquid penetrant inspection magnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... methods used in the laboratory portion of the failure investigation are mentioned in the failure examples. The topics covered are creep, localized overheating, thermal-mechanical fatigue, high-cycle fatigue, fretting wear, erosive wear, high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, liquid metal embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Erosion of a solid surface can be brought about by liquid droplet impingement (LDI), which is defined as "progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continued exposure to erosion by liquid droplets." In this article, the emphasis is placed on the damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a melting transition consistent with a PET resin. A low-temperature crystallization exothermic transition was also apparent. The (I) indicates that the numerical temperature was determined as the inflection point on the curve. Fig. 29 Scanning electron image showing features associated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Institute, Lesson 7 , Principles of Failure Analysis , ASM International , to be published Intergranular Fracture of Steels due to Grain-Boundary Precipitates Impurity-Induced IG Fracture Liquid Metal Induced Embrittlement Cyclic Microvoid and Cyclic IG Processes Carburized Steels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for recording up-close detail. Digital cameras have features ideal for failure analysis work. Those include a liquid crystal diode display screen for display of the image recorded, removable storage media, zoom lenses, and macro-focus capability. Such a camera offers all of the standard features found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-Induced Intergranular Fracture Liquid Metal Induced Embrittlement Grain boundaries or the preferred path of crack growth can become embrittled by a variety of environmental conditions, such as hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), and corrosion. If the process occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or brittle overload failures and the resultant fracture morphology are influenced by various material factors from the atomic level to the bulk material level. The inherent macroscopic ductility of crystalline materials, for example, depends on factors such as the specific crystal lattice that is present...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surfaces, dried residues from liquids and even low-vapor-pressure oils and greases can also be looked at. A minute drop or thin layer of the liquid or oil of interest can be placed on a clean substrate (silicon wafer, aluminum foil, etc.) and allowed to dry in air prior to its analysis. One...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of crystal lattices occurs as a result of bonding between atoms. Strong bonding forces between atoms cause atoms to pack efficiently (high packing densities). These arrangements exhibit planes of high atomic density, which contain close-packed directions. This results in the three lattices (fcc, bcc, and hcp...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... By using a finely focused liquid metal ion gun (LMIG), typically bismuth, gold, or gallium, it is also possible to record the lateral distribution of chemical species across a surface with sub-100 nm spatial resolution. Because secondary ion intensities vary dramatically from element to element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is also presented. degradation mechanisms failure analysis hydrogen cracking pipeline flaws steel transmission pipelines HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, such as liquid petroleum products and natural gas, are typically transported via truck, rail, sea, and/or pipeline. Of these different transportation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 4 -Na 2 SO 4 or NiSO 4 -Na 2 SO 4 liquids via reaction of CoO or NiO with SO 2 . Courtesy of Z. Tang and B. Gleeson, University of Pittsburgh Fig. 23 Effect of molten salt on hot corrosion at 700 °C (1290 °F) in air. With the lower melting temperatures of salt mixtures, the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Diffraction Patterns for the Determination of Crystal Symmetry Elements , Scanning Electron Microsc. , Vol 2 , 1986 , p 386 3. Picard Y.N. , Scanning Electron Microscopy , Materials Characterization , Vol 10 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2019 , 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-Scatter Diffraction Patterns for the Determination of Crystal Symmetry Elements , Scanning Electron Microsc. , 2 , 1986 , p 386 3. Newbury D. , Joy D. , Echlin P. , Fiori C. , and Goldstein J. , Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy , Plenum Press , New York , 1986...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... loss in image characteristics or quality. However, a JPEG image should not be edited and resaved multiple times because image quality will be degraded as a result of the multiple compressions. Professional digital cameras have features ideal for the failure analysis process, including a liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... have been eliminated by reaction with the hydrogen. Courtesy of T.L. da Silveira, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Fig. 44 Scanning electron micrscope secondary electron image of liquid metal embrittlement in steel locomotive axle Fig. 45 Scanning electron microscope backscattered electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... size and location, is often difficult to detect. These factors combine to make localized corrosion mechanisms insidious. If undetected, they can lead to catastrophic system failures. Certain environments induce specific corrosion failure modes. Hydrogen damage, liquid- and solid-metal-induced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., for example, by cavitation or erosion-corrosion of a pipe in which a liquid is flowing under turbulent conditions, the characteristic teardrop shape of cavities is apparent at low magnification, as may be seen in Fig. 8 . Fig. 8 Elongated surface cavities on the inside surface of a 70-30 cupronickel...