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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... that some copper was accidentally left in the mold when the casting was poured. Liquid copper, carrying with it oxygen in solution, penetrated the austenite grain boundaries as the steel cooled. The oxygen reacted with the steel producing a network of scale outlining the austenite grain structure. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses technologies focused on processing plastic materials or producing direct tools used in plastics processing. The article focuses on extrusion and injection molding, covering applications, materials and their properties, equipment, processing details, part design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polyethylene heat-de ection temperature high-impact polystyrene high-strength sheet molding compound high-performance liquid chromatography high-pressure polyethylene high-speed liquid chromatography International Electrotechnical Commission butyl rubber (or isobutylene-isoprene rubber) infrared; synthetic...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 2 Ten different types of flaws that may be found in rolled bars. (a) Inclusions. (b) Laminations from spatter (entrapped splashes) during the pouring. (c) Slivers. (d) Scabs are caused by splashing liquid metal in the mold. (e) Pits and blisters caused by gaseous pockets in the ingot. (f More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 8 Ten different types of flaws that may be found in rolled bars. (a) Inclusions. (b) Laminations from spatter (entrapped splashes) during the pouring. (c) Slivers. (d) Scabs are caused by splashing liquid metal in the mold. (e) Pits and blisters caused by gaseous pockets in the ingot. (f More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and tend to line up in the direction of flow. Molecules in thermoplastic polymers are much longer than those in the unreacted liquid resin precursors to thermosets. The orientation effect in thermoplastics melt flow, such as occurs in injection molding, is much greater than that which occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... structures, hard spots that interfere with machinability, and the formation of chill carbide, intercellular carbides, and inverse chill. Pouring Gray Iron The act of pouring liquid gray iron into a mold is required to produce a casting and, as such, is no different than any other cast metal. This act...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and engineering thermoplastics. All test specimens are prepared by one source. This prevents any variations in mold design and/or molding conditions that would result from each participant molding individualized specimens. An alternative, small-scale repeatability study compares test data generated by two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., resulting in less flow in the mold, potentially not wetting the fillers or fibers, and a longer time to reach the gel point, negatively impacting process throughput. Fig. 16 Thermoset conversion from liquid resin to rigid polymer during curing process. Adapted from Ref 14 In many thermoset...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The causes of internal cracking that occurred in 9% Ni steel castings during manufacture were investigated using a series of eight laboratory castings containing varying amounts of molybdenum. The effect of mold thickness was also investigated. The laboratory castings were subjected...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... contain hot metal, and the metal must remain liquid until after the casting has been adequately fed and has solidified. Where possible, it is generally good practice to gate through a riser into the casting, causing the riser to be the last portion of the mold to be filled. Risers that are located...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... temperatures. Although time-consuming techniques can be used to analyze thermal stresses, several useful qualitative tests are described in this article. Flow-induced orientation effects are also discussed. Orientation commonly occurs in processing using such techniques as extrusion, injection molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with various regions of the viscosity curve. It discusses the concept of shear sensitivity, the nature of viscoelastic properties, and the electrical, chemical, and optical properties of different plastics. It also reviews plastic processing operations, including extrusion, injection molding, and thermoforming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with simple test electrodes. Specimens may be molded, cast, or cut from flat sheet or plate. The standard electrode configurations used for different dielectric strength tests of insulating materials are listed in Table 1 . Any of these widely used test methods developed and published by the ASTM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... becomes liquid over a certain temperature. Liquid copper penetrates into austenite grain boundaries and weakens grain boundaries, leading to a loss of ductility. The cracks appear on the external arc of the tensile region during pipe bending as the strain and stress of this place are higher than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...). Amorphous polymers do not have sharp melting points; instead, they pass from a hard glassy structure below the T g to a viscous liquid state or a rubbery structure above the T g ( Fig. 7a ) ( Ref 7 ). Structurally, the molecular chains in an amorphous polymer are randomly arranged in three dimensions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the liquid metal flows at high speeds, causing erosion of the mold or die cavity. 1 These defects can also be caused by extended mold usage or die wear and are open to the surface, resulting in decreased structural integrity. Gas holes (porosity) are generally formed by an excessive amount of gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A section of type 304 stainless steel pipe from a stand by system used for emergency injection of cooling water to a nuclear reactor failed during precommissioning. Leaking occurred in only one spot. Liquid penetrant testing revealed a narrow circumferential crack. Metallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Polyoxymethylene (POM) 136 275 85 185 0.37 0.22 37 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) 92 200 90 195 0.19 0.11 34 Polyarylate (PAR) 155 310 … … 0.22 0.125 31 Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) 311 590 220 430 … … 5 Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) 183 360 130 265 0.42 0.24 22 Nylon...