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liquid metals

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Metal-induced embrittlement is a phenomenon in which the ductility or fracture stress of a solid metal is reduced by surface contact with another metal in either liquid or solid form. This article summarizes the characteristics of solid metal induced embrittlement (SMIE) and liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metal-induced embrittlement is a phenomenon in which the ductility or the fracture stress of a solid metal is reduced by surface contact with another metal in either the liquid or solid form. This article summarizes some of the characteristics of liquid-metal- and solid-metal-induced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Intergranular fracture Mercury Rupturing Safety equipment C22000 UNS C22000 Liquid metal induced embrittlement Background Applications Commercial bronze rupture discs (C22000) are used in a safety device integral with valves used on flammable gas containing cylinders. C22000 composition limits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Abstract Metallography is an important component of failure analysis. In the case of a liquid metal embrittlement (LME) failure it is usually conclusive if a third phase constituent can be formed inside of the cracks after failure. In the case where it is necessary to characterize the third...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... on sections from one of the studs and revealed that the coating on the fracture surface was cadmium. The fracture had multiple origins, and secondary cracks also contained cadmium. The fracture topography was intergranular. The failures were attributed to liquid metal embrittlement caused by the presence...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 33 Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement and cracking evidence that occurred during torch brazing. 2% nital etch. 119× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Optical micrograph of copper penetration (liquid metal embrittlement) in the broken axles. 300× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 36 Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement and cracking evidence that occurred during torch brazing. 2% nital etch. Original magnification: 119× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 4 Service failure of a low-alloy steel nut by liquid-metal-induced embrittlement (LMIE). Cadmium-plated, 4140 low-alloy steel (44 HRC) nuts were inadvertently used on bolts for clamps used to join ducts that carried hot (500 °C, or 930 °F) air from the compressor of a military jet engine More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 5 Failed nose landing gear socket assembly due to liquid-metal-induced embrittlement (LMIE). (a) Overall view of the air-melted 4330 steel landing gear axle socket. Arrow A indicates the fractured lug; arrow B, the bent but unfailed lug. Arrow C indicates the annealed A-286 steel More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 44 Scanning electron micrscope secondary electron image of liquid metal embrittlement in steel locomotive axle More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 48 Copper-induced liquid metal embrittlement in a 0.5 wt% carbon steel that occurred when the steel was in contact with liquid copper at 1100 °C (2010 °F). 2% nital etch More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 49 Zinc-induced liquid metal embrittlement in 321 austenitic stainless steel. Etched in Vilella's reagent More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 19 (a) Cracks in the head recess of a titanium fastener caused by liquid metal embrittlement. (b) Irregular thickness of cadmium after sectioning More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 57 Liquid metal embrittlement in two aluminum alloy 2024-T4 plates that were wetted with liquid mercury and then loaded to fracture in tension. Fracture occurred rapidly at a stress well below the nominal yield strength of the plates. Visible on each fracture surface is a flat, mercury More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the axis of the wire were revealed by metallographic examination. A light-gray phase, which had the appearance of liquid-metal corrosion, was observed to have penetrated the grains on the fracture surfaces. The spring wires were found to fracture in a brittle manner characteristic of fracture from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and liquid-metal embrittlement of bolts and nuts. The article explains the most commonly used protective metal coatings for ferrous metal fasteners. Zinc, cadmium, and aluminum are commonly used for such coatings. The article also illustrates the performance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a background of friction-bearing failures due to overheating. The failures of locomotive axles caused by overheated traction-motor support bearings are discussed. The article also describes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in steel. It examines the results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Several cases of embrittlement failure are analyzed, including liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) of an aluminum alloy pipe in a natural gas plant, solid metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE) of a brass valve in an aircraft engine oil cooler, LME of a cadmium-plated steel screw from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on the fixture surface and that this could have penetrated the stainless steel in the presence of tensile thermal-contraction stresses. The cracks in the weldments were a form of liquid-metal embrittlement caused by contact with superficially melted copper from the fixture and subsequent grain-boundary attack...