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liquid junction potential

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in an accumulation of cooling water deposits, further promoting the cracking mechanism. Recommendations The following are recommendations that would be expected to reduce the potential for future instances of chloride SCC of the condenser: Redesign the V-shape junction so as to eliminate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that the failures were the result of hydrogen embrittlement produced by galvanic corrosion and attendant evolution of hydrogen at the dissimilar junction, which was also the site of the highest tensile stress. Suggested measures for minimizing recurrences included use of lower-strength, galvanically-compatible...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... dissimilar metals are to: Select metals with the least difference in “uncoupled” corrosion potentials Minimize the area of the more noble metal with respect to that of the active metal Insert an electrically insulating gasket between the two dissimilar metals Seal the junction from any...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , The Influence of Hydrodynamics on Erosion-Corrosion in Two-Phase Liquid-Particle Flow , Corrosion , Vol 45 ( No. 10 ), 1989 , p 793 – 804 24. Nesic S. and Postlethwaite J. , Relationship Between the Structure of Disturbed Flow and Erosion-Corrosion , Corrosion , Vol 46 ( No. 11...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... loading in the presence of body liquids can cause wear and fretting corrosion at implant junctions, such as screw heads and plate holes, or at artificial articulation surfaces. Extensive research has been devoted to the study of wear on artificial joints and its degradation products. Corrosion fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This is a valid reason to move evidence, but a reasonable attempt must be made to allow other parties, who may become involved in a potential legal case, to inspect the site. All concerned parties then can agree on the critical samples and the best way to remove them. If all parties are not available, care must...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... they determine whether the material is stressed above or below any ductile-to-brittle transition temperature below which relatively low energy fractures can occur. Other degradation mechanisms, such as corrosion and scaling; stress corrosion; erosion from flowing gases, liquids, and solids; hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are to: Select metals with the least difference in “uncoupled” corrosion potentials Minimize the area of the more noble metal with respect to that of the active metal Insert an electrically insulating gasket between the two dissimilar metals Seal the junction from any available electrolyte Another...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and machines were often extraordinarily massive, the dimensions in many cases being greatly in excess of the requirements of the imposed loads. About the middle of the last century it was realised by some engineers that fluctuating loads were potentially more dangerous than Static ones of the same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and with illustrative examples. Fatigue fracture in threaded fasteners and fretting in bolted machine parts are also discussed. The article provides a description of the different types of corrosion, such as atmospheric corrosion and liquid-immersion corrosion, in threaded fasteners. It also provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Estimation of Volumetric Change due to Steel Transformation In the previous discussion, it has been shown that there are various microstructures possible on heating and cooling of steel, and that the potential microstructural transformations that are possible for a given steel are illustrated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... required to achieve high strength never completely eliminate the electrochemical potential between grain boundaries and grain centers. Stress-corrosion cracking in high-strength aluminum alloys is probably the most widely known example of the effect of grain orientation on the path of cracking. Where...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and fibering Burnished surface and controlled surface quality However, the beneficial factors of deformation processing can become a potential problem if the process is not carefully understood. Potential problems of the deformation process also include: Fracture-related problems: for example...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... itself is a discontinuity and a potential site for initiation of fatigue cracks. Joint design is one of the most critical factors of fatigue behavior, and this article devotes attention to the effects of joint design on weldment integrity. In terms of corrosion, it is also not unusual to find...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stress, 0 to 380 MPa (0 to 55 ksi); contact stress, 40 MPa (6 ksi); fretting cycles, 10 5 . Sample was nital etched and viewed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One development has been die, rapid quenching of liquid metals to produce amorphous metals. Fretting of two of these materials, Co...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
....) Environmentally induced cracking is an umbrella term that includes SCC, hydrogen embrittlement, liquid metal embrittlement, and corrosion fatigue. Although there are factors common among the different forms of EIC, this article deals only with SCC of metallic components. For more information, refer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., lubricant, and bearing components Potential sources of debris Potential sources of electrical current passing through the bearing Potential sources of water and other corrosive fluids Load spectrum and sources of potential-unknown loads Misalignment of deflections that influence load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Adapted from Ref 107 Fig. 34 Potential drop obtained when fretting Ti-6Al-4V (IMI 318) titanium alloy in a saline solution. SCE, saturated calomel electrode Fig. 35 Evolution of the fretting wear response of an HS25 cobalt-base alloy versus temperature, k , wear rate versus fretting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 4 -Na 2 SO 4 or NiSO 4 -Na 2 SO 4 liquids via reaction of CoO or NiO with SO 2 . Courtesy of Z. Tang and B. Gleeson, University of Pittsburgh Fig. 23 Effect of molten salt on hot corrosion at 700 °C (1290 °F) in air. With the lower melting temperatures of salt mixtures, the corrosion...