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liquid impact erosion

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Erosion of solid surfaces can be brought about solely by liquids in two ways: from damage induced by formation and subsequent collapse of voids or cavities within the liquid, and from high-velocity impacts between a solid surface and liquid droplets. The former process is called...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the liquid, c is the shock wave velocity in the liquid, and V is the impact velocity of the droplet ( Ref 1 ). This theoretical impact pressure of LDI is well reproduced in numerical studies. Therefore, numerical studies are becoming a powerful tool in predicting the detailed mechanism of LDI erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... These include cavitation erosion, liquid impingement erosion, and solid particle erosion. Cavitation erosion is due to the formation and collapse, within a liquid, of cavities or bubbles that contain vapor or gas or both. Liquid impingement erosion is due to impacts by liquid drops or jets. Solid impingement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... erosion. Cavitation erosion is due to the formation and collapse, within a liquid, of cavities or bubbles that contain vapor or gas or both. Liquid impingement erosion is due to impacts by liquid drops or jets. Solid impingement erosion is due to impacts by solid particles. Impingement also connotes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... After the microjet impact, liquid flow on the solid surface could also have some effect on material removal. This is the reason why some surface-crack formation observed could not be attributed only to microjet impact on the solid surface ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). Cavitation Erosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the conclusion that the damage was due to liquid erosion, but it could not be firmly established whether it was caused by cavitation or by liquid impact. Recommendations included making a material substitution (to Mo-13Cr-4Ni stainless steel) and doing a redesign to reduce susceptibility to erosion as well...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the point of entry. The solid particle erosion will normally lessen as the distance downstream of the point of entry increases. Liquid droplet erosion will usually be more severe on the blade rows, two or three rows removed from the point of entry. After entry into the turbine and initial impact...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surfaces. Adhesive wear, the type of wear that occurs between two mutually soluble materials, is also discussed, as is erosive wear, liquid impingement, and cavitation wear. The article also presents a procedure for failure analysis and provides a number of detailed examples, including jaw-type rock...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that an excessive flowrate of the incoming SO 2 liquid could have caused erosion-corrosion. How-ever, the flowrate was so low that erosion-corrosion could not occur. The next step in the failure analysis process was to emphasize that severe metal loss only occurred in the vicinity of the SO 2 liquid inlet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., mechanism and thus the terms “cavitation erosion” and “Cavitation corrosion” have arisen to describe the effect. With the former, it is considered that shock impact on the metal surface produces local stresses in excess of the fatigue limit of the material. Cracks develop and, ultimately, small particles...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Power-generation plants use processes that occur without any particles present and involve only the transport of solutions or steam. In these cases, liquid forces on the solid surface, which are due to turbulence or droplet impacts, mechanically remove protective layers of corrosion products, thus...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., respectively) from the suction line were analyzed. Evidence of overall thinning of the elbow and pipe material and ductile tearing of fractures indicated that the feed water pipe failed as a result of an erosion corrosion mechanism, which thinned the wall sufficiently to cause rapid, ductile tearing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of a fluid is involved in a tribological process, it is usually called erosion. By definition, both involve progressive loss of material or alteration of material from a solid surface, but erosion requires the mechanical action of a fluid, such as a gas or liquid. Sand blown through a steel pipe at high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... used in the laboratory portion of the failure investigation are mentioned in the failure examples. The topics covered are creep, localized overheating, thermal-mechanical fatigue, high-cycle fatigue, fretting wear, erosive wear, high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, liquid metal embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in operation cycle of electric power generation, so any minor problem of a pump has a direct impact on the system. The common problems facing pumps are cavitation, erosion, and corrosion that individually or together can lead to the failure of pumps, in which cavitation is the most common type [ 1 , 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... lining. Etched in 2% nital. 500× This heavy damage is cavitation damage, frequently observed in diesel motor cylinders. Cavitation must always be reckoned with on a body vibrating in a liquid when the amplitude and frequency attain such high values that the sluggish liquid can no longer keep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in Figure 18 . The pits in the MP piece typify erosion pitting, where erosion is defined as the removal of surface material due to numerous impacts of the surface from solid or liquid particles. Fig. 18 SEM Micrographs of Pits Inside 1988 MP The pits in both the 1988 EB piece and the 1988 MP...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Erosion-corrosion can be generally defined as the synergistic attack of mechanical impact and corrosion. According to ASTM G 40, “Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion,” erosion-corrosion is a synergistic process involving erosion and corrosion, in which each of the processes is affected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... There is no evidence of erosion or corrosion damage. Testing Procedure and Results Nondestructive Evaluation Liquid Penetrant Testing Discussions utility personnel suggested that the small end of the reducer might also be cracked. Because visual examination had disclosed no cracks on this side, a dye...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... at the tops of lobe A and B differs: In lobe B the erosion is dimple-like around the access port (more impact like) and in lobe A the erosion cut wavy lines in the surface of the shell (more flow like). Fig. 7 The inside of the blender shell showing the 2 top loading ports (photograph taken through...