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light microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The influence of microstructures on the failure of a material is discussed and examples of such work are given to illustrate the value of light microscopy. In addition, information on heat-treatment-related failures, fabrication-/machining-related failures, and service failures is provided, with examples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract After completing a fatigue test of an aluminum alloy component machined from a 7079-T6 forging, technicians noted a 5 in. crack which ran longitudinally above and through the flange. When the fracture face was examined by light microscopy, observers could not ascertain the exact mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on its surfaces and showed a pattern very similar to dezincification. Further investigation to determine the cause of damage using light microscopy and SEM-EDS techniques revealed that the microstructure consisted of multiple phases and that a Si-rich phase was being preferentially attacked, leading...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and electrolytic polishing. The article also describes the microstructure examination of various materials, with emphasis on failure analysis, and concludes with information on the examination of replicas with light microscopy. electrolytic polishing failure analysis field metallography fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... High-Powered Light Microscopy/Fractography Examination of the fatigue crack surfaces using high-powered light microscopy revealed many regions of fatigue striations, which occasionally were large. The larger striations could be followed around the crack front and appeared to be present on all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is known to cause pitting corrosion in stainless steels. Both submitted tube sections had numerous cracks on the outer surface of the tube away from the header. The cracks were not readily detected with visual examination or low-magnification light microscopy on the as-received surfaces, but were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A 1984 Chevrolet Blazer was being pushed by three youths after it ran out of gas when it was hit from behind by a 1979 Mercury Cougar. One of the youths was crushed between the two vehicles and killed. Optical microscopy was used to examine the tungsten filaments from the headlamps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to visual inspection/light optical microscopy, metallography, electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was observed that the vacuum cadmium coating adjacent to the fracture plane had worn off and corroded in service, thus allowing pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... macroscopic overview of the fracture surface on the pump axis. Fracture origin indicated Abstract The shafts on two centrifugal pumps failed during use in a petroleum refinery. Light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the damaged materials to determine the cause...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 52 Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images of (a) 2% ferrite, annealed and air cooled, showing carbide and chi (light) phase (28Cr-53Fe-12Mo-5Ni) with 0.10 mm (0.004 in.) lateral expansion at −195 °C (−320 °F), and (b) 2% ferrite, annealed and air cooled, showing virtually More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract New aircraft wing panels extruded from 7075-T6 aluminum exhibited an unusual pattern of circular black interrupted lines, which could not be removed by scouring or light sanding. The panels, subsequent to profiling and machining, were required to be penetrated inspected, shot peened...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... due to compressive/shearing stresses Investigation Samples were analyzed with light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Portions of the mirror were sent out for analysis of the base material and visually identified corrosion products. A portion of the middle layer from area...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Intergranular morphology observed within primary crack using light optical microscopy. Mag. 30× More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the photographic equipment used in failure analysis and on film and digital photography. The article describes the basics of photography and the uses of different types of lighting in photography of a fractured surface. The article also addresses the techniques involved in macrophotography and microscopic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Microfractography Detailed examination of fracture surfaces at higher magnification can facilitate evaluation of the failure mechanisms. Microfractographic examination can be conducted in several ways, including direct methods involving light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and indirect methods...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... evaluation of the failure mechanisms. Microfractographic examination can be conducted in several ways, including direct methods involving light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and indirect methods involving replicas that can be examined by light microscopy or by scanning or transmission...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was characterized using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA). The powder was investigated by many techniques, but x-ray diffraction was the prime technique for identifying the corrosion products. Results The appearance of units aged at 88 C (190...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stereomicroscopic image of exemplar crankshaft fracture with light-emitting diode ring light illumination Fig. 24 Optical stereomicroscopic image of exemplar crankshaft fracture with light-emitting diode ring light illumination and high dynamic range image processing Digital Microscopy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... 304 stainless steel. The extensive craters in (b) correspond to the particles in (c). (a) Coarse debris found between screens. (b) Small piece of screen found between screens. (c) Fine debris found on heater tube sheet. Light Microscopy and Microhardness Figures 9(a) and (b) show...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Fractography How does one go about examining fracture markings or crack patterns? The techniques of fractography provide the answer to that question. Observations of fracture surfaces may begin with the unaided eye and may include various types of microscopy: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy...