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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The influence of microstructures on the failure of a material is discussed and examples of such work are given to illustrate the value of light microscopy. In addition, information on heat-treatment-related failures, fabrication-/machining-related failures, and service failures is provided, with examples...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and electrolytic polishing. The article also describes the microstructure examination of various materials, with emphasis on failure analysis, and concludes with information on the examination of replicas with light microscopy. electrolytic polishing failure analysis field metallography fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract After completing a fatigue test of an aluminum alloy component machined from a 7079-T6 forging, technicians noted a 5 in. crack which ran longitudinally above and through the flange. When the fracture face was examined by light microscopy, observers could not ascertain the exact mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surfaces and showed a pattern very similar to dezincification. Further investigation to determine the cause of damage using light microscopy and SEM-EDS techniques revealed that the microstructure consisted of multiple phases and that a Si-rich phase was being preferentially attacked, leading to increased...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 1984 Chevrolet Blazer was being pushed by three youths after it ran out of gas when it was hit from behind by a 1979 Mercury Cougar. One of the youths was crushed between the two vehicles and killed. Optical microscopy was used to examine the tungsten filaments from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract The shafts on two centrifugal pumps failed during use in a petroleum refinery. Light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the damaged materials to determine the cause of failure. The results showed that one shaft, made of duplex stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...), and was subjected to visual inspection/light optical microscopy, metallography, electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was observed that the vacuum cadmium coating adjacent to the fracture plane had worn off and corroded in service, thus allowing pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the mirror showing failure due to compressive/shearing stresses Investigation Conclusions Samples were analyzed with light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Portions of the mirror were sent out for analysis of the base material and visually identified corrosion products. A portion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract New aircraft wing panels extruded from 7075-T6 aluminum exhibited an unusual pattern of circular black interrupted lines, which could not be removed by scouring or light sanding. The panels, subsequent to profiling and machining, were required to be penetrated inspected, shot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the junction with the header was mounted and metallographically prepared. The prepared sections were examined as polished and after etching electrolytically in 10% oxalic acid. The examination was performed using light microscopy, and micrographs of representative microstructures were taken. Visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of other spars in service confirmed the presence of similar cracking in many aircraft. The particular crack examined was selected because it appeared to be the best preserved following the crash. Eddy Current Examination Visual Macrofractography High-Powered Light Microscopy/Fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and indirect methods involving replicas that can be examined by light microscopy or by scanning or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The limited depth of field available in the light microscope is such that it is difficult to record fracture surface features...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of retained austenite using light microscopy and standard metallographic techniques, particularly when the quantity involved is small, it is usual to determine this by x-ray diffraction. The accuracy using a diffractometer is in the region of 0.5% for the range 1.5 to 38% of austenite by volume ( Ref 18...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... for most of the data acquisition for this report. The components were disassembled after testing, and both the header and the explosive powder were evaluated. The header was characterized using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA). The powder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of as-received screen was obtained for comparative purposes. Coarse and fine debris found in the engine was also examined and characterized. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Light Microscopy and Microhardness Low power output resulted from the disintegration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation scanning electron microscope scanning electron microscopy THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. Compared to the light microscope, it expands the resolution range by more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and other specialized methods. The bulk of the observations by far are done with low-magnification optical microscopy, often using a stereographic microscope, and with higher-magnification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... specification. Visual examination of the cracked splice plate showed cracks in the heel region running parallel to the rolling direction. Light microscopy as well as SEM–EDS studies of the sample near the crack (sample# 1) did not reveal any cut, notches, or entrapments. The etched microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electron instruments does not mean that good failure analysis work cannot be performed. It is still possible, because good work was accomplished prior to the development of these instruments, but the investigator must be more resourceful. Fractures can be studied by light microscopy, either by direct...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and microscopic examination and stereomicroscopy and light microscopy. The metallographic specimens were etched using equal volumes of HCl 2 HNO 3 , and acetic acids. Representative fracture sections were also examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine specific failure modes and to develop...