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light microscope

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Crack branching near the tip of a split: (a) SEM, and (b) light microscope. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast steel that had aluminum nitrides segregated to the grain boundaries More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 2 Light microscope fractographs taken with (a) bright-field and (b) dark-field illumination compared to (c) a SEM secondary-electron image fractograph of the same area. Sample is an Fe-Al-Cr alloy. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 5 Microstructure showing light and dark etching as seen under microscope More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...” events recorded during the life of the aircraft. The bolt hole was examined by eddy current testing, visual examination, high-powered light microscope, and scanning electron microscope. Simulation tests were also conducted. The use of simulation specimens permitted actual crack growth rate data...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 Different levels of accumulated creep damage in the form of grain boundary pores, as seen with the light microscope on a polished, unetched surface. The region shown is close to specimen 40B 1 shown in Figure 4 . More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
adjacent to the fracture to be inspected. Prior to inspection with a digital light microscope, the section was soaked in Evapo-Rust to remove the tightly adhering red rust adjacent to the fracture surface, as seen in Fig. 35 . An example of the surface condition of the axle is shown in Fig. 36 More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electron metallographic instruments, such as the scanning electron microscope, has not diminished the importance of light microscopy. Basically, the light microscope is used to assess the nature of the microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. The purpose in using the light microscope may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the electron microscope to study phases unresolvable with the light microscope. Microprobe any critical abnormalities, such as inclusions and segregations, that are too small for bulk analysis. Use x-ray techniques to determine: (a) level of residual stress; and (b) the relative amounts of phases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... of the elements struck by the primary electron beam. The SEM has a substantially greater depth-of-focus than a light microscope, and this depth-of-focus is particularly important at high magnifications. The SEM is useful for characterizing discoloration, because at high magnification even very small amounts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... indicated that fracture had started beneath the brinelled area at the forward edge of the upper surface of the spring. Figure 1(b) , a light microscope fractograph of this corner, shows that the origin of the brittle fracture was in fact a small fatigue crack that had been present for a considerable period...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... were examined visually at magnifications from 1× to approximately 50× with the aid of a light microscope. Photographs documenting significant observations were taken during the visual examination. Selected sections of the failed tube, including the surfaces of a longitudinal crack and a transverse...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the photographic equipment used in failure analysis and on film and digital photography. The article describes the basics of photography and the uses of different types of lighting in photography of a fractured surface. The article also addresses the techniques involved in macrophotography and microscopic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The fracture surfaces were examined visually and by optical (light) stereomicroscopy. Material testing showed a sample to be within the specified material limits for aluminum alloy 6061. Microscopic examination showed no significant differences in microstructure or grain size among the four T-sections...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... The worn surfaces of samples and the wear debris were examined by light optical microscope, SEM, and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalyzer. It was found that the laboratory pin-on-disk wear data correlated well with the plant experience. It is suggested that the higher lead content ~18%) of the good...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that no suspension was involved Abstract Rollover accidents in light trucks and cars involving an axle failure frequently raise the question of whether the axle broke causing the rollover or did the axle break as a result of the rollover. Axles in these vehicles are induction hardened medium carbon steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Four cadmium-plated ASTM A193 grade B studs from a steam line connector associated with a power turbine failed unexpectedly in a nil-ductility manner. Fracture surfaces were covered with a light-colored, lustrous deposit. Optical microscope, SEM, and EDS analyses were conducted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Following an accident in which a light pickup truck left the road and overturned, one of the rear axles, made of approximately 0.30C steel, was found to be fractured adjacent to the bearing lock nut. A keyway was present in the failed area, as were threads for the lock nut. Fracture...