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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., oblique/tangential lighting at varying oblique angles and orientations is often useful in evaluating the fracture conditions present. Inspection and photographic documentation of as-manufactured surfaces is, however, benefited by illumination by diffused and reflected lighting, especially if the component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Fig. 1 Professional digital camera Fig. 2 “Point-and-shoot” camera Fig. 3 A 60-mm micro lens Fig. 4 Professional digital camera with off-camera flash Fig. 6 Photo light table with light-emitting diode panel side and top illumination and exemplar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract An aircraft was grounded when illumination of the transmission oil-pressure light and an accompanying drop in pressure on the oil-pressure gage was reported by the pilot. No discrepancy in the bearing assemblies and related components was revealed by teardown analysis...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Center girth weld of a Ti-6Al-4V pressure vessel that failed during proof testing because of weld embrittlement resulting from oxygen contamination. (a) Interior surface of the weld illuminated with ultraviolet light, which reveals fluorescent liquid-penetrant indications of transverse More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a dual-side incandescent lighting copystand is shown in Fig. 6 , where lights “A” and “B” both illuminate the specimen. The resulting photograph with dual-side illumination is shown in Fig. 7(a) . Dual-side lighting is limited in revealing surface topography, because topographic feature shadows...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 Microhardness indentations (10gf load) in a region of adiabatic shear. A light unresolved substructure is apparent in the shear band. Etched in 2% nital. DIC illumination. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... differential interference contrast illumination) and the water stains (arrows on the aluminum specimen). Fig. 6 Light micrograph showing stain (arrows pointing up) from the etchant (Vilella’s reagent) that seeped from the shrinkage gap (wide arrows pointing down) between the phenolic resin mount...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Optical microscope; reflected light; picture width ∼4 mm Adjustment of the illumination when using an optical microscope is critical to seeing fracture markings. Figures 5 and 6 show the fracture surface of a silicon nitride rod that was broken in uniaxial tension. In Fig. 5 , the light...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... illumination for this work, dark-field illumination often produces superior results. Figure 2 illustrates the use of bright-field and dark-field illumination for viewing a brittle fracture in an Fe-Cr-Al alloy, plus a SEM fractograph of the same area. Dark-field illumination is better at collecting the light...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... small transverse cracks in the fusion zone and HAZ ( Fig. 1a ). Fig. 1 Center girth weld of a Ti-6Al-4V pressure vessel that failed during proof testing because of weld embrittlement resulting from oxygen contamination. (a) Interior surface of the weld illuminated with ultraviolet light, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... examination of microsections, a coarse-meshed net of fine precipitates was found ( Fig. 7 ). They were in part transparent and were illuminated four times while turning 360° in polarized light between crossed Nicols. Thus they were anisotropic, i.e. not glassy or of cubic structure ( Fig. 8 ). Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of anomalies. Equipment for remote visual examination includes telescopes, borescopes, and fiber-optics cameras. Visual examination of translucent materials uses artificial lighting that can be contained in an illuminator to produce directional lighting. The illuminator provides light of an intensity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... measures irregularity in wavelengths of light. Test instruments are often illuminated by helium-neon lasers, which operate at a wavelength of 0.633 μm (25 μin.). An irregularity of 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.), then, is considered 4 wavelengths deep or high. Using this method, the irregularity of a surface can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... method of illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock candy” fracture. Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... often results in a suppression of the surface features that are desired. Flexible fiber-optic lighting is often the most appropriate method of illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... stress resulting in a greater generation of heat. Fig. 8 Microhardness indentations (10gf load) in a region of adiabatic shear. A light unresolved substructure is apparent in the shear band. Etched in 2% nital. DIC illumination. Conclusion Metallographic and fractographic features...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ,” International Commission on Illumination/Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage , 2020 2. Andrady A.L. , Wavelength Sensitivity in Polymer Photodegradation , Adv Polym Sci , Vol 128 , 2005 , p 47 – 94 10.1007/3-540-61218-1_6 3. Searle N.D. , The Activation Spectrum and Its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... transfer and deactivation process for quenchers Fig. 17 Peroxide radical deactivation process with a primary antioxidant (e.g., sterically hindered phenol) Fig. 18 Reaction of a hindered amine light stabilizer derivate with a peroxide radical to form a nitroxy radical Fig. 19...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and because they reflect light, they are easily visible, especially when viewed at the correct angle with the aid of a directed light source, such as a fiber-optic illuminator. When viewed with this type of light source, the craze appears to have a silvery appearance much like that of a very fine crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Transmitted-light micrograph showing a yielded zone surrounding and preceding a fatigue crack in a 0.25 mm (0.01 in) thick polycarbonate sheet. 20× Fig. 11 Time-to-failure of high-density polyethylene pipes at different stresses and temperatures. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 15 Typical load...