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lead-tin eutectic system

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of die-cast ZAMAC 3 solenoid valve seats during commissioning of the system in which they were installed. Applications The zinc-aluminum alloy ZAMAK 3 is used in die casting of solenoid valve seats. The solenoid valves are used to regulate the gas flow in pressure systems. Circumstances Leading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-melting metals and alloys. Tin, lead, and zinc melt below the maximum service temperature of the turbine, which was 462 °C (864 °F). One Sn-Zn system had a eutectic melting point of less than 204 °C (400 °F). Such metals can cause liquid-metal embrittlement at temperatures above their melting points...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperature difference between the mainstream lead-containing and lead-free solder alloy systems, except tin-bismuth alloys, which are commonly used for low-temperature soldering processes ( Ref 3 ). Typical compositions of solder alloys Table 1 Typical compositions of solder alloys Categories...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... different from that responsible for the more usual type of failure shown by these components. Its occurrence can be minimised by design changes, so that the oil pressure is maintained, or possibly by a change in material, a tin-base babbitt being more resistant than a lead-base alloy of the same hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... hand, can culminate in catastrophic roll failures leading to considerable reduction in roll life and mill productivity. Spalling involves a fatigue phenomenon, where fracture occurs by generation and propagation of several microcracks under applied stresses imposed during rolling. Although spalling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., the ultimate user) is the best (and lowest-cost) method of avoiding casting failures. Many tools exist to assist with the process of ascertaining the cause of a failure, including design failure modes evaluations, finite-element analysis, and component testing criteria and results, which lead to process...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steels are susceptible to various molten metals or alloys, such as brass, aluminum, bronze, copper, zinc, lead-tin solders, indium, and lithium, at temperatures from 260 to 815 °C (500 to 1500 °F). Plain carbon steels are not satisfactory for long-term use with molten aluminum. Stainless steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract The various methods of furnace, torch, induction, resistance, dip, and laser brazing are used to produce a wide range of highly reliable brazed assemblies. However, imperfections that can lead to braze failure may result if proper attention is not paid to the physical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... important to determine what was manufactured, delivered, and installed, and to find if it agrees with the drawings. It is then necessary to ascertain what happened to the component before and at the time of failure (history, performance, environment, and so on). The evidence and investigation should lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in a cold climate. A fuel preheater system was installed to prevent condensation, but it could not be confirmed whether it was operational during the service period, which suggested a potential root cause of the failure. Thermal-Mechanical Fatigue Cycling (startup/shutdown) of a gas turbine leads...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... low-melting metals and alloys. Tin, lead, and zinc melt below the maximum service temperature of the turbine, which was 462 °C (864 °F). One tin-zinc system had a eutectic melting point of less than 204 °C (400 °F). Such metals can cause liquid-metal embrittlement at temperatures above their melting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... embrittlement or other causes result in fracture under normal loading. The purpose of engineering failure analysis is to identify the root cause of component or system failure and to prevent similar occurrences. Underdesign is just one potential cause of an overload failure, and the time-consuming...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reduction is small, mechanical properties, chiefly toughness and ductility, are affected. However, it should also be noted that overheating may occur during the solution anneal of age hardening alloy systems. In this case, grain boundary porosity by melting of the eutectic constituent occurs and can result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... toughness and ductility, are affected. However, it should also be noted that overheating may occur during the solution anneal of age-hardening alloy systems. In this case, grain-boundary porosity by melting of the eutectic constituent occurs and can result in significantly reduced ductility and toughness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as the cause of all overload failure, because it does not include failures in which embrittlement or other causes result in fracture under normal loading. The purpose of engineering failure analysis is to identify the root cause of component or system failure and to prevent similar occurrences. Underdesign...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... low-melting metals and alloys. Tin, lead, and zinc melt below the maximum service temperature of the turbine, which was 462 °C (864 °F). One Sn-Zn system had a eutectic melting point of less than 204 °C (400 °F). Such metals can cause liquid-metal embrittlement at temperatures above their melting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and Failure Criteria In any component, the failure criteria need to be defined and established. Failure does not always involve fracture or rupture. Progressive damage of rotating blades and high-temperature components under operating conditions leads to exhaustion of life, thus leading to failure...