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lead-base soft solders

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Note the puckered appearance of the gold polymer coating at the left termination. This was caused by the heat of soldering exceeding the T g of the epoxy. 21.6× Fig. 4 SEM micrograph of a resistor with a partially delaminated termination. The light-appeahng portion is the lead-tin alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., cadmium, lead, and silver caused little or no embrittlement. In 1935, the bend strength of steel coated with a lead-tin solder at 250 °C (480 °F) and with a bearing metal at 350 °C (660 °F) was determined ( Ref 24 ). Penetration of the liquid metals was observed on the tension side only of the bend...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., hydrocarbons, carbon, or other carbonaceous compounds. Carburization alone usually does not result in corrosion or alloy wastage, but adsorption and diffusion of carbon into the base alloy can lead to significant changes in the alloy mechanical properties and thus possible alloy embrittlement. Variables...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., etc Mercury as an impurity in natural gas Molten metal from fires, especially Zn from galvanized steel dripping on stainless steel Zn-based paint splashes onto hot equipment Lubricants containing metals such as Pb Pick-up from contaminated grinding wheels Cu from electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as “instantaneous” in Table 1 to distinguish it from the more progressive form of cracking due to fatigue or creep. These basic modes of fracture may also occur in combination, as when a fatigue or creep crack grows over time and ultimately leads to a rapid fracture through overload failure by ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or creep. Hence, overload is described as instantaneous in Table 1 to distinguish it from the more progressive form of cracking due to fatigue or creep. These basic modes of fracture can also occur in combination, as when a fatigue or creep crack grows over time and ultimately leads to a rapid fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... important to determine what was manufactured, delivered, and installed, and to find if it agrees with the drawings. It is then necessary to ascertain what happened to the component before and at the time of failure (history, performance, environment, and so on). The evidence and investigation should lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Decomposition in Conceptual Design Two basic methods of decomposition are used in conceptual design: physical decomposition and functional decomposition. Many design concepts are based on the method of physical decomposition, when existing or emulative designs are used with an implicit functionality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Decomposition in Conceptual Design Two basic methods of decomposition are used in conceptual design: physical decomposition and functional decomposition. Many design concepts are based on the method of physical decomposition, when existing or emulative designs are used with an implicit functionality...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of this Volume, while this article introduces the section on fracture. However, it should be remembered that some nonfracture-failure scenarios may ultimately lead to fracture. Wear processes, for example, can ultimately lead to fracture by galling and/or fretting fatigue. Other examples include fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Appendix 2 ) to estimate the toughness and/or stress level based on the width of the shear lip. As constraint increases behind the notch, the through-thickness stress increases. This may lead to splitting of a plate near midthickness, especially if inclusions are concentrated in this region and have...