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law of continuity

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... long portion of the overall lifetime of the part. In principle, crack propagation starts from the “initiation” phase (Regime A in Fig. 14 ) and mainly being “short crack” propagation, and continues with the “propagation” phase of Regime B, in which the Paris law is supposed to hold, up to Regime C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Of the many different nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, ultrasonic inspection continues to be the leading nondestructive method for inspecting composite materials, because measurements can be quantitative and the typical defect geometries and orientations lend themselves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Then, the widely used models to simulate the service life of polymers are highlighted. These include the Burgers power-law model, the Findley power-law model, the time-temperature superposition (or equivalence) principle (TTSP), and the time-stress superposition principle (TSSP). The Larson-Miller parametric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and by intergranular sliding of ferrite/ferrite and ferrite/pearlite, just as it occurs in stage III creep behavior. The behavior is confirmed through the Ashby-Verrall model, according to which the dislocation creep (power-law creep) and diffusion creep (linear-viscous creep) occur simultaneously. structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in Fig. 9 . In the linear region (shown as segment AB ), the ratio of stress to strain (the slope) is known as either Young’s modulus or the elastic modulus. Behavior in this region is similar to that of a purely elastic, ideal solid, governed by Hooke’s law: (Eq 1) σ = E ε where σ is stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is continued to fracture at a different amplitude. Alternatively, the stress may be changed from one stress amplitude to another at regular intervals; such tests are known as block, or interval, tests. These tests do not simulate service conditions, but are useful in assessing the linear-damage law...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... systems is the best way to optimize sliding mechanical components. Friction In the simplest terms, friction is the resistance to sliding in a system. Guillaume Amontons developed two laws of friction in 1699, the first of which states that the force of friction acting between two sliding surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Service time has reached some arbitrarily chosen fraction of calculated or experimental failure life. Previous failure statistics indicate high probability of failure. Frequency of repair renders continued operation uneconomical. Nondestructive inspection reveals cracking. Surface degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or vibration) or thermal loading. Metal fatigue has been a recognized damage mechanism since the mid-1800s. Furthermore, fatigue damage has been responsible for many catastrophic failures of equipment, structures, machines, and components, and it will undoubtedly continue to be a major damage mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...., 272 cycles) at 1033 K, a plastic strain range of 0.5%, and an R -ratio (ε min /ε max ) of 0. Cycling was continued at 298 K under the same conditions: it failed on the first loading cycle, even though the life of such a specimen is predicted to be thousands of cycles without the high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... operation, or after an automobile accident in which law enforcement personnel attempt to reestablish traffic flow. In this circumstance, medical attention to the injured persons and/or urgency to restore traffic flow may cause evidence to be altered or destroyed. If possible, the accident scene should...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the electrical contact resistance depends on the nature of the coating (noble versus nonnoble) and can be formalized using decreasing power-law functions of the sliding amplitude ( Ref 33 ). Fig. 5 Fretting wear damage in electrical connectors The transportation of goods by road or rail obviously...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microscope and others. These tools have made possible answers to several long-standing questions of importance, such as an improved understanding of temper embrittlement in steels. Advancement in the quantitative understanding of fracture also continues. For example, two relatively recent symposia...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in which a strengthening precipitate continues to age at creep temperatures, brief primary creep often shows transition to a long, upward sweep of creep rate, with only a point of inflection for the secondary period. Aging of normalized and tempered 0.5Cr-0.5Mo-0.25V steel during creep under 80 MPa...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... apparatus. Most mechanical components continue to be functional beyond the zero wear limit, and their usefulness is normally connected with the loss of a specific depth of material. The article reviews the zero impact wear model and some measurable impact wear models. It presents a case study illustrating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the surface can curve as the principal stress plane orientation changes. As the fracture continues to the compression side of the component, the principal stress orientation changes, often resulting in a lip or compression curl in the final fracture region ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 3 Compression curl of bend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... what expectations existed among various parties is often part of the analysis. Product safety continues to improve, but expectations are also heightened. Failure Definitions In the general sense of the word, a failure is defined as an undesirable event or condition. For purposes of discussion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of materials. The first requirement of radiation to influence a material is the so-called Grotthus-Draper law (also called the principle of photochemical activation): Only photons that are absorbed by the polymer can cause a physical or chemical effect ( Ref 8 ). Not all photons that are absorbed cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
..., but the material on either side of the transverse crack remained locked together. There was some looseness, indicating that the crack was continuous and had separated the material into two pieces, but evidently these two pieces were interlocking. Two pieces of material bearing parts of the “rock candy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... through a glass or a ceramic, its propagation direction and velocity are affected by the stresses it encounters. Central to understanding fracture markings and their interpretation in brittle materials is the so-called law of normal tension, which states that the fracture propagates normal...