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laser etching

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...”: Microstructure : The product shall contain not more than 2% free ferrite, determined in accordance with AMS 2315. Grain Size : Shall be 5 or finer for product up to 3.00 inches in nominal cross sectional thickness with occasional grains as large as 3 determined by comparison of a polished and etched specimen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... A. : Laser cladding of aerospace materials . J. Mater. Process . 122 , 63 – 68 ( 2002 ) 10.1016/S0924-0136(01)01121-9 3. Dinda G.P. , Dasgupta A.K. , Mazumder J. : Laser aided direct deposition of Inconel 625 superalloy: microstructural evolution and thermal stability . Mater...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at the micro level. Another technique desirable in failure analysis is combining stereomicroscopic images with scanning electron microscopy to perform further chemical analysis. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy within optical microscopes allows for chemical fingerprinting directly from a color image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of this Volume. Investigators are now capable of deploying various tools (laser scanning, photogrammetry, drones, etc.) to acquire high-quality, highly accurate data to successfully document accident scenes while preserving evidence for future examination. A model is a physical, mathematical, or logical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding processes. The article also describes failure origins in other welding processes, such as electroslag welds, electrogas welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, flash welds, electron and laser beam weld, and high-frequency induction welds. arc welding brittle fracture electrogas welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in simulation and therefore can be optimized prior to product launch. However, a bigger blank may be needed to accommodate draw beads, and properly engaging the beads may require a more complex die and die process. A blanking die or laser-cut blanks may be needed if nonrectangular blanks are used. Similar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discoloration along the bottom of the pipe. (c) Cross section of pipe wall through the perforation. The sample was etched in ASTM 89 reagent to delineate the microstructure. Uniform wall thickness is approximately 2.9 mm (0.11 in.). 5×. Courtesy of S.R. Freeman, Millennium Metallurgy, Ltd. Fig. 3 View...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... was developed to reduce stresses. Laser etching is preferred in critical applications, but the creation of a deep remelted zone is of concern for fatigue resistance. The articulated rod in an aircraft engine fractured after being in operation for 138 h since the engine had been overhauled; total operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... techniques (such as eddy current or ultrasonic) to be used in parallel with XRD, the XRD analysis should be performed before the surface is additionally disturbed or cold worked. It is important that the chemicals used to remove coatings never etch the material. If etching occurs, subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , “ Microstructural Degradation of Bearing Steels ,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge , 2014 60. Polonsky I.A. and Keer L.M. , On White Etching Band Formation in Rolling Bearings , J. Mech. Phys. Solids , Vol 43 ( No. 4 ), 1995 , p 637 – 669 10.1016/0022-5096(95)00001-Y 61...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of elements such as hydrogen and chlorine Pits or selective etch Corrosion Stress corrosion Thermal Heat-affected zone Recast or redeposited material Resolidified material Splattered particles or remelted metal deposited on surface Electrical Conductivity change Magnetic change...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metrology techniques such as laser scanning can be quite useful in fracture pattern assessments. A typical example of the application of such tools is described in Appendix 1 of this article, along with a cursory discussion of fracture mechanics principles, and understanding of which is often required...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... L.M. , Mateo M.P. , Laserna J.J. : Large area mapping of non-metallic inclusions in stainless steel by an automated system based on laser ablation , Spectrochim. Acta Part B , 59 , 567 – 575 ( 2004 ) 17. Perkins K.M. , Bache M.R. : The influence of inclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract The various methods of furnace, torch, induction, resistance, dip, and laser brazing are used to produce a wide range of highly reliable brazed assemblies. However, imperfections that can lead to braze failure may result if proper attention is not paid to the physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are sectioned carefully, mounted in a resin compound, ground, and polished to facilitate metallographic examination. The prepared cross sections are called metallurgical mounts and are prepared using standard metallographic techniques. Mounts are examined in the unetched and etched conditions. In the unetched...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metal. Cracking occurred in the martensitic (white) heat-affected zone of the flange. 2% nital etch Fig. 12 Fracture surface of flange failure in the as-received condition. Intergranular fracture is shown as well as debris retained from the field. Fig. 13 Stainless steel tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... confirm the presence of corrosion and severe abrasion, where untempered martensite white regions along the surface of the etched wire may be created on the crown wires. Example 1: Tension-Tension Fatigue of a Stacker Crane Wire Rope Failures resulting in the immobilization of cranes are most often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... during hardening Fig. 4 Micrographs of cracks after heat treatment caused either by sharp radii or related machining problems. (a) 4140 steel as-quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench crack at area of dimensional change. 2% nital etch. Original magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., such as bearing or gear materials, sand, or machining chips. Fig. 31 Bearings that were damaged by corrosive fluids. (a) Drawn cup for a needle-roller bearing damaged by vibration in the presence of dirt and moisture. Roller spacing is indicated by polished indentations. (b, c) Corrosion or water etch...