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laser beam welds

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Sections through a fractured laser beam weld joining a Hastelloy X cooling tube to a base plug of the same material. The weld fractured by stress rupture from tensile overload, which resulted from stress concentrations at a notch left by inadequate joint penetration. (a) Unfailed More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Airfoil-shape impingement cooling tubes were fabricated of 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick Hastelloy X sheet stock, then pulse-laser-beam butt welded to cast Hastelloy X base plugs. Each weldment was then inserted through the base of a hollow cast turbine blade for a jet engine...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding processes. The article also describes failure origins in other welding processes, such as electroslag welds, electrogas welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, flash welds, electron and laser beam weld, and high-frequency induction welds. arc welding brittle fracture electrogas welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... wavelengths, the emissivity value cancels, and the true temperature is related to that ratio regardless of the emissivity. Directed-Energy Deposition Directed-energy deposition feeds material into an energy beam, typically a laser, electron beam, or plasma arc weld head. Feedstock is typically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., the fatigue life of these expansion joints could be improved by using a high energy density welding process such as laser beam welding to further reduce heat input . These steps would reduce the number and size of potential microcracks to act as fatigue crack initiation sites. References References 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cracks, pits, etc. Only sensitive to surface flaws Low cost, intuitive. May be enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/infrared (IR)—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser flying spot/line technology Surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... rectangle if its long axis is perpendicular to the radiation beam, and it appears as two concentric circles (one darker than the other) if the long axis is parallel to the beam. Linear porosity is recorded on radiographs as a series of round dark spots along a line parallel to the direction of welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... camera to monitor the intersection of a laser beam (positioned next to a multiple mirror-driven scanner) with the component under inspection. The intersection data are analyzed by a dedicated computer system to provide the Cartesian coordinates of the scanned surface. These data are then made available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... geometry such as a welded assembly, or is additively manufactured, or if the part has both metallic and nonmetallic or composite sections. There are terahertz (THz) imaging, infrared (IR) imaging and laser shearography (ST) techniques available that use discontinuity location and damage mode where other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) can be measured directly ( Ref 15 ). The size of specimens that can be evaluated using XRD can vary widely from as small as the head of a pin to as large as a ship ( Ref 13 , 16 – 19 ), a building/structure ( Ref 20 , 21 ), or a bridge ( Ref 22 – 25 ). Line of sight for both the incident beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... photography, videography, and laser scanning. A wreckage distribution map may be developed, showing the relative location of each of the components of the aircraft, and a complete inventory of all recovered components may be generated. Documentation of the scene should include: All major aircraft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... A high-strength, low-alloy steel can be used instead, with the grade and fabrication depending on the requirements of the specific application. Flame-cut or laser-cut parts and welded components, insofar as possible, should be stress relieved at 600 to 650 °C (1110 to 1200 °F); cutting may produce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of detecting the lighter elements down to lithium. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is another portable technique for detecting elements down to lithium, although the equipment is usually larger than portable XRF. Another in situ but slightly destructive method that can be employed is to use a small scribe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., or energy directors that allow for parts to be permanently welded together using processes such as ultrasonic or spin welding. Molded plastics are also easily decorated, either with in-mold labeling, pad printing, or laser etching. This allows for product customization, instructions, branding, or automatic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... may include, but is not limited to: Date of installation Piping material grade Diameter and wall thickness Seam weld type (if any) Coating type Cathodic protection information Previous hydrotest results (including dates, pressures, and times) In-line inspection results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... reviews fatigue assessment methods incorporated in international design and post construction codes and standards, with special emphasis on evaluating welds. Specifically, the stress-life approach, the strain-life approach, and the fracture mechanics (crack growth) approach are described. An overview...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., gross nonmetallic inclusions, brittle second-phase particles, weld defects, or arc strikes. Occasionally, brittle fractures are encountered, particularly in low-temperature environments or as a result of impact or a rapidly applied overload. Brittle fracture may thus be attributable to inappropriate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is scanned with a fine focused laser beam ( Ref 67 ). As a result of point illumination and point detection, only light reflected from features within the focal plane enters the detector, which then generates an optical slice containing sharp details. Such a slice is essentially a horizontal profile through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with ASTM 89 reagent. The pit was not associated with a welded region, and the microstructure appeared normal. There was no evidence of general wall loss (uniform corrosion). Conclusion The pitting in the austenitic stainless steel pipe is believed to be caused by damage to the passive layer brought...