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laser beam machining

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... sintering in the 1980s. One is the AM process of powder-bed fusion, where powder is spread over a build area in a thin layer and subsequently fused locally by an energy source, such as a laser, electron beam, or light source. Another type of AM process developed the 1990s is directed-energy deposition...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 17 Summary of stress ( S ) versus cycles to failure ( N ) ( S - N ) data for laser powder-bed fusion (PBF), electron beam melting (EBM) PBF, and directed-energy deposition (DED) wire at R = 0.1. Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization (MMPDS) data for cast More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Laser/dimensional metrology photogrammetry, laser total station, laser tracker, coordinate measurement machines Either angle/angle stereo image or angle/time-of-flight allows measurement of surface profile of the object. Reverse engineering, dimensional metrology, crack and pit detection Limited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... was overaged, which would reduce the fatigue life of the Inconel 718 component during cyclic loads ( Fig. 7c ). The intense heat generated in laser beam machining of Inconel 718 tends to form a recast surface layer similar to the defect in the surface of Inconel 718 caused by rough finishing EDM ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding processes. The article also describes failure origins in other welding processes, such as electroslag welds, electrogas welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, flash welds, electron and laser beam weld, and high-frequency induction welds. arc welding brittle fracture electrogas welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-manufactured materials Fig. 33 Residual stress versus depth profiles for as-fabricated and as-fabricated plus peened additive-manufactured parts Fig. 35 Residual stress versus depth profile for a titanium-base alloy component treated with laser shock peening Fig. 34 Residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... not have as much relevance. In other instances, a material defect, weld defect, or machining defect may turn out to be the factor in allowing the damage, and prior NDE turns out to be of high importance in determining if there was a pre-existing flaw. Nondestructive evaluation techniques allow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of detecting the lighter elements down to lithium. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is another portable technique for detecting elements down to lithium, although the equipment is usually larger than portable XRF. Another in situ but slightly destructive method that can be employed is to use a small scribe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... components of lifting equipment in three categories: Cranes and bridges, particularly those for outdoor and other low-temperature service Attachments used for direct lifting, such as hooks, chains, wire rope, slings, beams, bales and trunnions, and the members to which they are attached...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the jack support beam, where the stud connected to the jack support beam, did not exhibit machined threads at its initial depth. Approximately three male threads of the studs were unconstrained in this region. Thus, every time a load was applied, a fluctuating bending load was transferred to the leading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... amplifying the vibrations from the I-beam. To find the cause of the amplification, an impact test was performed on the microscope to determine its natural frequencies. The natural frequency of the scope on its isolation system was found to match the vibration on the I-beam. Isolators function by creating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are steel; however, many other materials are used in shaft applications. Moving shafts are often classified as either transmission shafts or machine shafts. Transmission shafts are generally cylindrical, and they transfer motion through attached componentry such as gears, pulleys, and so on. Machine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is scanned with a fine focused laser beam ( Ref 67 ). As a result of point illumination and point detection, only light reflected from features within the focal plane enters the detector, which then generates an optical slice containing sharp details. Such a slice is essentially a horizontal profile through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... control of final dimensions usually must be machined after welding. Dimensional tolerances for as-welded components depend on the thickness of the material, the alloy being welded, the overall size of the product, and the particular welding process used. The dimensional accuracy of weldments is determined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or for components with large diameters and thin sections, such as slewing rings. Here again, one should exploit an optimal compromise between surface hardness and bending fatigue strength at the best cost. Recently, some electron- and laser-beam heat treatment techniques were also further deployed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of background data on the manufacturing and fabricating history of a component should begin with obtaining specifications and drawings and should encompass all the design aspects of the failed part as well as all manufacturing and fabrication details—machining, welding, heat treating, coating, quality-control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... flaws can be a contributing factor to furnace-treated failures blamed on the heat treating process. Surface defects can generally be removed by machining. If not removed, they can have dramatic results during surface heat treatments by short-duration processes, such as flame, induction, laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., it is first necessary to have a working knowledge of Hertzian contact theory. The general concept and equations for simple shapes is presented in many undergraduate machine design textbooks, while a more generalized version is available in Ref 4 . When a static load is applied such that two elastic bodies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... responsible for many injuries, fatalities, and significant financial loss in these industries. For decades, extensive research and experimental efforts have been completed to establish design, manufacturing, and fabrication techniques to minimize the potential for fatigue failure in metal machines, components...