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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Alloy steel forgings used as structural members of a ski chair lift grip mechanism were identified to have contained forging laps (i.e., sharp-notched discontinuities) during an annual magnetic particle inspection of all chair lift grip structural members at a mountain resort...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for testing. Analysis (visual inspection, 100x nital-etched micrograph, fluorescent magnetic-particle testing, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that the rod failed in fatigue with the origin along the lap and located approximately 4.7 mm below the forged surface. The presence of oxides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... (fracturing) Forgings Laps Pressure vessels Seams Alloy steel Metalworking-related failures Certain forged pressure vessels are subjected to autofrettage during their manufacture to induce residual compressive stresses at locations where fatigue cracks may initiate. The results of the autofrettage...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Section Through Defect Also Revealing Lap Weld. (×1 1 4 ). More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Blacklight macrograph showing typical lap defect within the bail region of a handling lug (3× magnification) More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Cracking from laps and folds on bore of rivet holes. (×400). More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Cracking from laps and folds on bore of rivet holes. (×400). More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Forging lap on ski lift fixed jaw More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Microstructure of forging lap in another ski lift grip component. As-polished. 111x More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Broken-open lap. 6x More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Micrograph of lap. As polished. 58x More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 4 Effects of diemismatch during forging, which can produce a fold or lap during trimming. The force of the punch moving down causes the material to flow to the empty portion of the die; at the same time, material flows into the area from the trim line. More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 13 Nozzle/plate lap weld to two center shell segment rings D and E More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-working and hot-working applications. It reviews problems introduced during mechanical design, materials selection, machining, heat treating, finish grinding, and tool and die operation. The brittle fracture of rehardened high-speed steels is also considered. Finally, failures due to seams or laps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... defects and was of high purity, although a number of minor surface defects such as rolling laps were found. The spring was heat treated and its surface strengthened by shot-peening, but the surface was also decarburized to a depth of approximately 0.03 mm which resulted in a lowering of the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... taken place either at a weld in the pipe or at a discontinuity in the material. Microscopic examination through the joints at the ends of the rupture confirmed that the pipe had been made from strip and the edges lap-welded. The second case concerned an 8 in. diam pipe in which a longitudinal defect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...-ended. The two cases not only serve to illustrate the danger of applying fillet welds to seal the lap edges of riveted seams, but point to the inadvisability of employing riveted construction for vessels intended for service under conditions involving frequent pressure and thermal fluctuations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... as the result of vibration and inadequate support of the hose assembly. Recommendations included changing the joint design from a cylindrical lap joint to a square-groove butt joint. Also, an additional support was recommended for the hose assembly to minimize vibration at the elbow. Aircraft components...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001906
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... testing, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. It was determined that the failures were due to forging defects. Both forging laps and seams acted as stress concentrators when the lugs were loaded during proof testing. Bombs (weapons) Suspension lugs Forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... examination showed welding conditions were such that a carburizing atmosphere developed, which led to an increase in carbon content and hardening at certain locations such as terminal bells and lap joints. This explained the processing difficulties during the threading operation. Hardening Pipe Weld...