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land-based gas turbine

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of intergranular oxidation, which may help to initiate the cracks, TMF cracks tend to propagate along the grain boundaries. Examples of such cracks in land-based gas turbine blades are shown in Fig. 4 . In TMF life prediction methods, the wave form, particularly the phasing between strain and temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... turbines ( Ref 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ), land-based gas turbines ( Ref 21 , 22 , 23 ), solids transport systems ( Ref 17 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 ), cyclones ( Ref 17 , 28 , 29 , 30 ), valves ( Ref 17 , 31 , 32 ), and inlet nozzles ( Ref 33 ). In the oil and gas industry, choke valves are damaged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and waterwalls ( Ref 2 – 16 ), steam turbines ( Ref 17 – 19 ), land-based gas turbines ( Ref 20 – 22 ), solids-transport systems ( Ref 16 , 23 – 27 ), cyclones ( Ref 16 , 27 – 29 ), valves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-generation plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), pulp and paper mills, waste-incineration sites, numerous industrial chemical processes, diesel engines (power, land vehicle, and maritime), and gas turbine (land-based, marine shipboard, and aircraft). Predicting corrosion of metals and alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0090030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the plane, making the plane difficult to control. Heroically, the pilot was able to crash land the plane at the Sioux City, IA airport, saving over 180 passengers, but the accident still resulted in 112 fatalities. A subsequent investigation revealed that the cause of the disk rupture ( Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... While the throttle was moved back to check the problem, the aircraft was apparently operating normally; however, for the sake of safety, the flight was landed. The above symptoms are similar to those anticipated in a stall event, thus the engine was disassembled to check internally for damage (technical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... composition, time, and gas composition. High-temperature corrosive environments may include power-generation plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), pulp and paper mills, waste incineration sites, numerous industrial chemical processes, diesel engines (power, land vehicle, and maritime), and gas turbine...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... For example, the operation of a land-based turbine can vary from plant-to-plant within the same company. In the earlier design days the principal design consideration was stress, that is, the load to cause failure at a specific wall thickness or cross-sectional area. The criterion for failure could...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... alloys in structural aircraft components such as landing gear and wing components, stainless steel tubing used as part of the hydraulic or fuel systems, high-strength low-alloy steel for mechanical systems such as landing gear and gear box components Agriculture: Welded carbon or low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the personnel performing the task may cause a failure by selecting the wrong test, by performing the test incorrectly, or by reviewing the test incorrectly. A favorite example concerns bird-strike testing on jet engines. Bird strikes have been a problem during aircraft takeoffs and landings for many years...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... along with its effect on the system. Others ( Ref 23 , 24 ) take the view that FMECA extends the analysis to include a ranking of the failure modes based on both a combination of the failure mode's probability of occurrence and the severity of its effect. Still others use the term FMEA even when...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Fig. 4 Failed nose landing gear socket assembly due to LMIE. (a) Overall view of the air-melted 4330 steel landing gear axle socket. Arrow A indicates the fractured lug; arrow B, the bent but unfailed lug. Arrow C indicates the annealed A-286 steel interference-fit plug containing the grease fitting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be thought of as loss of function of the part. As an example, failure for a turbine blade within the hot section of an aeroturbine may be defined as the initiation of a microstructurally small crack; failure of the inlet turbine blade in a land-based power-generation turbine may be defined as a crack of 6 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... was therefore attributed to LMIE by cadmium. Fig. 5 Failed nose landing gear socket assembly due to liquid-metal-induced embrittlement (LMIE). (a) Overall view of the air-melted 4330 steel landing gear axle socket. Arrow A indicates the fractured lug; arrow B, the bent but unfailed lug. Arrow C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Columbia and the lunar module Eagle used for that historic space flight, moon landing, and safe return to Earth had been improved as a result of the findings and mitigations based on the rigorous and detailed accident investigation of the command module from the Apollo 1 fire. A second command module...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... industry is adopting a probabilistically-based damage tolerance analysis method for certifying new designs of titanium rotors (see the section “Case Histories: Examples of the Use of Probabilistic Analysis” and “Example 1: Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Analysis of Gas Turbine Rotors” in this article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... blade separated in flight, but fortunately a successful emergency landing was made. The outboard section that had separated was recovered. There was a large flat fracture with beach mark features typical of fatigue. The fatigue crack had initiated on the inner surface of the spar at the cavity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., but fortunately a successful emergency landing was made. The outboard section that had separated was recovered. There was a large flat fracture with beach mark features typical of fatigue. The fatigue crack had initiated on the inner surface of the spar at the cavity ( Fig. 6 ). Fluid was found within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). During the fly sequence (i.e., takeoff and landing) macro gross slip slidings are combined with aerodynamic micro partial slidings, which can generate combined fretting wear (i.e., wear volume induced by debris formation and debris ejection) but also fretting fatigue (i.e., crack nucleation and crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to determine if all of the pieces or fragments are present at the site of the accident. For example, an investigation of an aircraft accident involves the development of a considerable inventory, including listing the number of engines, flaps, landing gear, and the various parts of the fuselage and wings...