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laminate thickness

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the compression-loading skin panel were revealed by nondestructive visual examination. A band of de-lamination between the areas of through-thickness skin fracture at the front and rear spar was revealed. A map of the local directions of crack propagation over the fracture surface was generated by the orientation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-wall separation parallel to the plate surface (see Fig. 6 and 7 ). Some delamination one quarter of the plate thickness from both surfaces was observed. Fig. 6 Photomacrograph of shell midwall laminations and fracture site in Fragment 17 Fig. 7 Photomacrograph of fracture origin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., nor to be detrimental to its safety; a vessel is often considered to be equally strong if made of separate plates of equivalent total thickness. Cases have been experienced in which the presence of a lamination served to initiate failure. These indicate that, where laminations are known to exist...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the vessel to withstand the stresses to which it will be subjected in service, nor to be detrimental to its safety; a vessel is often considered to be equally strong if made of separate plates of equivalent total thickness. Cases have been experienced in which the presence of a lamination served...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by metallography, i.e., it was less than 1 µm thick. The areas where the oxide was not resolved are those where the interference oxide colours were observed on the fracture surface. The formation of the flap and subsequent DHC eliminated all evidence of the lamination flaw, and the indications of the reason...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... a laminated construction. Adhesive bonding held the laminations together, and a plastic coating covered the outside surfaces. Bonded laminated sheets are known to be stronger than monolithic, or one-layered, sheets of the same thickness. Tray 1, submitted as evidence of the accident, is shown in Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A batch of bimetal foil/epoxy laminates was rejected because of poor peel strength. The laminates were manufactured by sintering a nickel/phosphorus powder layer to a copper foil, cleaning, then chromate conversion coating the nickel-phosphorus surface, and laminating the nickel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of a cylindrical tank used for the road transport of concentrated sulphuric acid revealed severe blistering of the plates, mainly over the crown and more particularly on the first ring. The tank, made in 1958, was of welded construction, the material being mild steel plate, 7 32 ″ thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... be specified to examine a narrow segment of the total waveform and thus characterize the response from a thin (one- or two-ply thick) plane through the material or the bondline between two laminates. Figure 12 shows that fiber orientation and interlaminar echoes from between the two plies are emphasized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... affect the amount of shrinkage, especially with a crystalline polymer. Thick sections will shrink at a different rate than thin sections and will be at a higher temperature leaving the tool. Shrinkage occurring outside the tool is less constrained. Differential cooling in the tool, thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... in., thick. Dye-penetrant crack detection of the section of the furnace ring submitted for examination gave the indications depicted in Fig. 1 . With the aid of a low-power magnifier, however, many finer cracks could be seen. The fire-side surface of the sample was coated with a layer of oxide scale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... resistance to the material. As the thickness of the film increases, the rate of formation falls and ultimately becomes insignificant. In certain environments a magnetite film possesses self-healing properties and rapidly reforms when damaged, so that if bare metal becomes exposed locally the protective film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... insulation in an organic sulfur environment, and an equalization tank with localized corrosion in the shell courses in a chemicals facility. In the first two cases, remaining life is assessed by determining the minimum thickness required to operate the corroded equipment. The first is based on a Level 2 FFS...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the wall thickness and resulted in a slant fracture in approximately one-half of the wall thickness. Fig. 5 Failure from lamination inclined with respect to the pipe wall. These types of failures are generally related to (1) insufficient cropping of an ingot in the case of inclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (a) Electrode type Electrode description (b) (c) Insulating materials 1 Opposing cylinders 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter, 25 mm (1 in.) thick with edges rounded to 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) radius Flat sheets of paper, films, fabrics, rubber, molded plastics, laminates, boards, glass, mica, and ceramic 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the amount of styrene co-reactant. Fig. 1 Percent gains in weight of ASTM C581 laminates of a high- and low-styrene-containing vinyl ester exposed at 66 °C (150 °F) to a distilled and saturated sodium chloride solution for 120 days Organic polymeric materials absorb moisture when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... segregation Ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage High hydrogen content Nonmetallic inclusions Unmelted electrodes and shelf Cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs Chemical Segregation The elements in a cast alloy are seldom distributed uniformly. Even unalloyed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... between the transducer and the part. These couplants can be used after ensuring that it does not adversely cover or wash away important evidence during their application. Component wall thickness can be measured with high accuracy using simple longitudinal wave transducers. The thickness can be used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... aligned parallel to the predominant rolling direction of the plate. Fig. 8 Macro etched section taken adjacent to that seen in fig. 5 . Ultrasonic examination of both plates using a normal probe technique did not disclose the presence of any internal laminations, nor were any areas...