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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in the examination that the fracture involved hydrogen stress cracking. However, the nature of the corrosive attack suggested an interaction between the threaded coupling and biological organisms living in the freshwater environment of the pump shaft. The organisms had colonized on the coupling, changing the local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is also desirable on an international scale. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) are developing standard tests similar to those of ASTM and UL. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is the official ISO...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the receiving organization immediately concluded that the porosity, as a defect in the castings, must be the problem. The potential supplier was then asked to make new castings with less porosity. The new castings also failed the durability tests. The fatigue fracture surface of one of the new castings showed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and White Panel Temperature Devices for Natural Weathering Tests ,” ASTM International , 2019 6. ISO 4892-1 , “ Plastics—Methods of Exposure to Laboratory Light Sources—Part 1: General Guidance ,” International Organization for Standardization , 2016 7. Gardette J.L. , Rivaton...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... distributions . Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64 , 2937 – 2950 ( 2000 ) 10.1016/S0016-7037(00)00394-X 4. Beveridge T.J. , Meloche J.D. , Fyfe W.S. , Murray R.G.E. : Diagenesis of metals chemically complexed to bacteria: laboratory formation of metal phosphates, sulfides, and organic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... These aspects are dealt with by the “Brussels Treaty Organisation—Industrial, Safety and Health Committee” in their “Recommendations on the Construction and Use of Centrifuges” which are contained in Form 719 issued by the Ministry of Labour, H.M. Factory Inspectorate. This publication is similar to B.S. 767...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the customer and employing organization. For instance, technical reports have historically been written in the past tense from a third-person perspective. However, more authors are now using first person to describe their analyses. They believe first person instills readers with a better understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-ground facilities or submerged structures that receive sunlight. For closed systems and buried facilities, microbial metabolism is based on energy derived from oxidation reduction (redox) reactions. Under aerobic conditions, reduction of oxygen to water complements the metabolic oxidation of organic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... be alleviated. Even when using resistant material, the piping should be kept relatively clean with non-stagnant conditions. Bacteria in an aqueous environment will naturally form a biofilm on most surfaces. When the biofilm is formed, organic decomposition can occur. The by-products of organic decomposition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as the availability of organic carbon, metabolites such as EPS, or intermediates in the sulfur cycle (thiosulfate, sulfite, polysulfide) that can be keyed to certain MIC scenarios. The turnaround time for this work includes shipping time from the field to the laboratory and is typically weeks. Analyze inorganic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... (20,000 gal) tanks. The process involved acidification of an aromatic organic sodium salt with sulfuric acid at 80°C (175°F) to pH 2.0. Lead was an undesirable material for this application, because it creeps under its own weight at 80°C (175°F). A rack of corrosion test coupons was installed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... defects per million opportunities (equivalent to 99.9997% reliability). This is indeed a lofty goal for any organization (be it a manufacturing company, a petrochemical plant, a service business, or a government agency), but companies committed to Six Sigma have reported significant gains in productivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the United States for engineered metals are International Organization for Standardization (ISO), American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), Aerospace Materials Specifications (AMS), American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), and military standards (MIL), which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...” is a statistical metric referring to six times the statistical standard deviation of a normal distribution, which allows no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities (equivalent to 99.9997% reliability). This is indeed a lofty goal for any organization (be it a manufacturing company, a petrochemical plant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... J. M. et al. , Nuclear Technology , August 1989 , 87 , 34 – 53 . 10.13182/NT89-A27637 3. Three Mile Island Reactor Pressure Vessel Investigation Project. Achievements and Significant Results , Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Paris , 1994 . 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... that a failure is corrosion related just because it developed in an aqueous environment, even if such failures developed in stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue studies. This is a common error. A formal “corrosion education for corrosion prevention” program should also be required in any organization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polyisoprene International Rubber Hardness Degrees International Organization for Standardization intrinsic viscosity liquid chromatography liquid crystal polymer linear elastic fracture mechanics low-density polyethylene linear low-density polyethylene limiting oxygen index liquid-solid chromatography laser...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fully oxidized than expected. Finally, the TOF-SIMS showed what organic contaminants, as well as other low-level impurities, were present in the top few atomic layers. Acknowledgments The author would like to thank the rest of the Evans PHI and Physical Electronics Laboratory staff for their help...