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kinetic energy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surrounding the nucleus, it also has a unique set of Auger peaks, and the resulting spectrum provides a fingerprint of the probed surface. The kinetic energy of the Auger electrons is typically between 40 and 2500 eV. In this energy regime, electrons can only travel a short distance before interacting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... element has a unique set of electron energies surrounding the nucleus, it also has a unique set of Auger peaks, and the resulting spectrum provides a fingerprint of the probed surface. The kinetic energy of the Auger electrons is typically between 40 and 2500 eV. In this energy regime, electrons can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... It is characterized by its kinetic and deformation energies. Its motion results from axial displacement and bending deformations in the x - and y -planes ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 4 Rotating shaft The kinetic energy of the shaft may be represented by: [ 11 ] (Eq 13) E ks = ρ S 2 ∫ 0 L...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the corrosive wear caused by slurries. For a particle of a given angularity, the denser the particle, the more likely it is to cause either deformation or cutting wear on impact. This is a consequence of the dissipation of more energy in the same volume. Particle Size Because of their greater kinetic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... common type [ 1 , 2 ]. Cavitation can be defined as metal loss from the surface caused by high stresses associated with the collapse of vapor bubbles in the fluid. It, commonly, is made by the production and the collapse of vapor bubbles producing microjets of high kinetic energy, which is common...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... microscopy, (iii) electro-chemical polarisation kinetic reactivation, EPR and (iv) the small punch test. It was observed that a significant relationship existed between ambient temperature charpy impact energies and the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation expressed as a % of a monolayer. At low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... case, nitriding and embrittlement occurred at temperatures as low as 300 to 400 deg C (determined from an examination of the oxidation of the Zircaloy-2 carrier rod on which the detectors were mounted). Recent results are described and discussed in terms of the oxidation and nitriding kinetics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 10.5006/0010-9312-11.12.17 143. Ahluwalia R.K. and Im K.H. , Aspects of Mass Transfer and Dissolution Kinetics of Hot Corrosion Induced by Sodium Sulphate , J. Inst. Energy , Vol 64 ( No. 461 ), 1991 , p 186 144. Hanby V.I. , Sodium Sulfate Formation and Deposition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of increasing nominal contact stress levels is to increase wear rates; however, the occurrence of significant impact during the abrasive/wear material contact may also accelerate the rate of material removal. This acceleration results from the increased amount of kinetic energy dissipated during contact...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... amount of kinetic energy dissipated during contact. This energy may arise either from the moving abrasive particles or from the moving wear surfaces, as in the case of impact crushers. For brittle materials, increased fragmentation occurs under impact conditions, whereas elastomers may only suffer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by particles having higher kinetic energy, thus increasing the rate of damage. Erosion by fly ash causes polishing, flat spots, wall thinning, and eventual tube rupture. Fly-ash erosion can be controlled by coating tube surfaces with refractory cements or other hard, wear-resistant materials, although...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and mechanical property testing. This provided critical information and revealed that improper coking and decoking had removed the protective oxide layer (Cr 2 O 3 ) that normally prevents coke deposits from forming on exposed surfaces. Without...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ) N − k The term Δγ in is the inelastic shear strain range, Q sl is the activation energy for elevated-temperature slip, Q ox is the activation energy for stress-free oxidation, σ max is the maximum tensile stress of the TMF cycle, B is the volume over which the tensile stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... (714 to 540 °F), the thermodynamically stable phase is different and has a volume about 3 to 4% higher than the high-temperature phase. The transformation kinetics are slow, so that after quenching during the glass tempering process, any nickel sulfide inclusion is still in the high-temperature phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... This type of member is pressure sensitive. The limits are the asymptotes on a graph of all combinations of pressure and impulse that cause a specific damage level. The asymptotes are solved by equating work to strain energy for the pressure term and by equating strain energy to kinetic energy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... shear fractures occur at the arrest point, where an axially propagating fracture turns and spirals in a helical direction. Figure 4 shows an illustration of the location and configuration of tearing shear fractures. Tearing shear fractures occur because of the kinetic energy of the fracturing pieces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fouling of gas passages in tube bands by deposition of fly ash can lead to erosion by forcing the flue gases to flow through smaller passages at higher velocity. This effect, sometimes called laning, exposes tube surfaces to a greater probability of impact by particles having higher kinetic energy, thus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (No. 5 ), 2010 , p 428 – 475 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2010.01.001 8. Syed A. , Accumulated Creep Strain and Energy Density Based Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction Models for SnAgCu Solder Joints , Proc. 54th Electronic Components and Technology Conference , 2004 , p 737 – 746 9. Long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... function (φ m ) and the interfacial potential difference ( Ref 39 ): (Eq 3) V m = φ m + Δ s m ψ where the electron work function is the minimum energy to move electrons at Fermi level from inside a metal to its surface without kinetic energy ( Ref 23 , 40 ). The electron work...