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isothermal transformation diagram

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-temperature-transformation diagrams, also called isothermal transformation diagrams, are developed by heating small samples of steel to the temperature where austenite transformation structure is completely formed, that is, the austenitizing temperature (T A ), and then rapidly cooling to a temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract This article introduces some of the general sources of heat treating problems with particular emphasis on problems caused by the actual heat treating process and the significant thermal and transformation stresses within a heat treated part. It addresses the design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... critical temperature (Ac 3 ). If, however, the tube temperature was high enough to transform the iron in the steel from ferrite to austenite, there is no noticeable “necking down,” or reduction, in wall thickness of the fracture edges. There is still metal elongation and tube swelling, so that measurement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in four specimens (F-10, E-8, G-8 and E-6) was reaustenitized and transformed to a higher hardness structure upon cooling down after the incident. In this work [ 5 , 6 ], a dark etching, “feathery” band was observed on most of the specimens on the A533GrB side of the weld/plate interface, Figure 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-rupture life. The specimen was electropolished before replication in a solution containing (by volume) 100 parts hydrochloric acid, 50 parts sulfuric acid, and 600 parts methanol. Transmission electron micrograph. 4000× Fig. 14 Isothermal diagram showing the sequence of carbide formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... traces intersecting with the external surface. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 3 Aluminum alloy 2219-T8 in (a) as-received condition and (b) after isothermal exposure to 300 °C (570 °F) for 2.8 h. Note the increase in quantity of smaller precipitates in the aged sample. Courtesy of K. Anderson Wedge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Fig. 17 Isothermal diagram showing the sequence of carbide formation on tempering of normalized 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... transient and steady-state conditions. Dimensions given in inches. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 7 Ships's service turbine generator. (a) Load diagram showing the steam throttle flow in percent. (b) A schematic of the resultant transient and steady-state stresses as a function of time. The periodic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... design concepts Table 1 Methods and material characteristics for fatigue design concepts Design philosophy Design concept Material characteristics Safe-life, infinite-life Nominal stress or local stress concept S - N curve, S a = f ( N F ) Fatigue diagram, S a = f ( S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Suggested maximum operating temperatures for select alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Table 1 Suggested maximum operating temperatures for select alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Suggested maximum temperatures for various alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Table 1 Suggested maximum temperatures for various alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Alloy designation Temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by yield strength. Fig. 5 Diagram of the temperature dependence of elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of polycrystalline materials that do not exhibit a solid-state transformation. bcc, body-centered cubic; fcc, face-centered cubic; T , instantaneous absolute temperature; T M , absolute...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with a lateral force (upper arrow). Source: Ref 4 . (b) Medium-length tube tested to buckling instability on special-purpose-designed test machine. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 5 Diagram of the temperature dependence of elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of polycrystalline materials that do not exhibit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the carburized case, after heat treatment. When the roller was subjected to service loads, the delayed transformation of the retained austenite to martensite caused microcracks near the case-core interface. These internal microcracks nucleated a fatigue fracture that progressed around the circumference...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... may involve the following methods: Molecular spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) or Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy Molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) using light scattering as well as other secondary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Mechanical spectroscopy Viscosity, normal stress difference, shear elastic and loss modulus Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Chemical functional groups Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Surface functional groups Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...), dies are heated to near-forging temperature to minimize heat loss during forming. The low melting temperature of aluminum allows for near-isothermal conditions to be established. In some cases, the tool temperature is within 120 to 150 °C (215 to 270 °F) of the workpiece ( Ref 7 ). Blisters, which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... goes beyond knowledge of facts. Understanding requires integration of facts into the knowledge base of an individual so that the facts may be transformed into knowledge and then into product and/or process improvement. By now it should be clear that failure analysis is a task that requires input...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... improvement in durability and safety of products, equipment, or structures. Sometimes this analysis will lead to an improvement in economics as well. Understanding goes beyond knowledge of facts; it requires integration of facts into the knowledge base of an individual so that the facts may be transformed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2