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isothermal transformation

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 70 Brittle fracture in a 4150 steel. Material has been isothermally transformed at 300 °C (570 °F) from a Charpy V-notched specimen fractured at room temperature. Brittle fracture facets within larger regions, which were probably prior austenite grains. Source: Ref 30 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the metal of the three cracked components. Bend tests verified the conclusion that the most likely mechanism of delayed quench cracking was isothermal transformation of retained austenite to martensite under the influence of residual quenching stresses. Recommendations included modifying the quenching...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 31 Radial marks on tensile test specimen of Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 4150 steel isothermally transformed to bainite, quenched to room temperature, and then tempered. (a) Lower bainite, isothermally transformed at 300 °C (570 °F) for 1 h, tempered at 600 °C (1110 °F) for 48 h More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 18 Cooling paths for (a) martempering, (b) austempering, and (c) time quenching superimposed on the isothermal transformation curve for eutectoid steel More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 A dual-dimple size observed in a 4150 steel. Material was isothermally transformed at 190 °C (375 °F) and was not tempered. Tested as a Charpy V-notch specimen at 0 °C (30 °F). Source: Ref 30 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article introduces some of the general sources of heat treating problems with particular emphasis on problems caused by the actual heat treating process and the significant thermal and transformation stresses within a heat treated part. It addresses the design and material factors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-temperature-transformation diagrams, also called isothermal transformation diagrams, are developed by heating small samples of steel to the temperature where austenite transformation structure is completely formed, that is, the austenitizing temperature (T A ), and then rapidly cooling to a temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... than the voids from MnS-matrix debonding) ( Fig. 13 ). Fig. 13 A dual-dimple size observed in a 4150 steel. Material was isothermally transformed at 190 °C (375 °F) and was not tempered. Tested as a Charpy V-notch specimen at 0 °C (30 °F). Source: Ref 30 There is also a particle size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... carbide particles (resulting in smaller dimples than the voids from MnS-matrix debonding), as shown in Fig. 13 . Fig. 13 Dual-dimple size observed in 4150 alloy steel. Material was isothermally transformed at 190 °C (375 °F) and was not tempered. Tested as a Charpy V-notch specimen at 0 °C (32 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Figure 5 illustrates this temperature dependence schematically for polycrystalline materials that do not undergo a solid-state transformation. Two flow strengths are shown: one for a material that does not have a ductile-to-brittle transition in fracture behavior, such as metal with a face-centered...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...). Figure 5 illustrates this temperature dependence schematically for polycrystalline materials that do not undergo a solid-state transformation. Two flow strengths are shown: one for a material that does not have a ductile-to-brittle transition in fracture behavior, such as metal with a face-centered...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... changes only occur under the combined influence of stress and temperature. For example, the cube-shaped γ-(Ni 3 Al) strengthening phase in nickel-base superalloy NASAIR 100, under normal isothermal annealing, undergoes Ostwald ripening, characterized by an increase in particle size without any shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... changes can be duplicated through simple heat treatment. However, some microstructural changes only occur under the combined influence of stress and temperature. For example, under normal isothermal annealing, the cube-shaped γ-(Ni 3 Al) strengthening phase in nickel-base superalloy NASAIR 100 undergoes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... term given to the material damage accumulation process that occurs with simultaneous changes in temperature and mechanical loading. During this process, a whole range of damage mechanisms occur, and interactions usually take place that do not take place in isothermal fatigue. The principal challenges...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to Vickers hardness numbers for plotting [ 6 ]. This work revealed that the A533GrB plate material in four specimens (F-10, E-8, G-8 and E-6) was reaustenitized and transformed to a higher hardness structure upon cooling down after the incident. In this work [ 5 , 6 ], a dark etching, “feathery” band...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... critical temperature (Ac 3 ). If, however, the tube temperature was high enough to transform the iron in the steel from ferrite to austenite, there is no noticeable “necking down,” or reduction, in wall thickness of the fracture edges. There is still metal elongation and tube swelling, so that measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the rate of oxidation. The effects of oxygen concentration and temperature are specific to each alloy. Scale growth rate increases with a rise in temperature. Table 1 provides suggested maximum temperatures for various alloys. Suggested maximum temperatures for various alloys in continuous, isothermal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... In addition, another complex mechanism is quench cracking, which almost always occurs intergranularly. Quench cracking may be aggravated by the various mechanisms of grain-boundary weakening and grain size, but it also is heavily influenced by volumetric expansion during transformation hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for select alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Table 1 Suggested maximum operating temperatures for select alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Alloy designation Maximum temperature Ref °C °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... transformation hardening and the temperature extremes of quenching but can be aggravated by some of the mechanisms mentioned previously as well as grain size. Quench cracking is addressed further in other articles in Steel Heat Treating Technologies , Volume 4B, Induction Heating and Heat Treatment , Volume 4C...