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isothermal hot tensile test

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and circumferential tensile stresses on the side in contact with the adjacent diaphragm. In the presence of the molten copper-rich alloy, these stresses gave rise to severe hot cracking. Copper Liquid metals Steam turbines Fe-0.35C-3.42Ni Liquid metal induced embrittlement The fusing of the switch...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... from corrosion, including coating degradation, is excessive. Grain-boundary attack and/or pitting by oxidation/hot corrosion is excessive. Foreign object damage is severe. Destructive sampling and testing indicate life exhaustion. Excessive deformation has occurred due to creep, causing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a hcp structure, just as there are differences in the stress necessary to cause cleavage. Deformation twinning does occur in materials having a bcc lattice, with twinning more likely at low temperature and elevated strain rates. (Strain rates commonly encountered in tensile testing of the order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... under consideration should be tested as closely as possible to the environmental conditions the part will be exposed to while in the field. For example, if the part is expected to experience 100 °C, tensile testing following ASTM D638 at this temperature is recommended. Alternatively, the part can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in tensile testing of the order of 10 −3 to 10 −2 per minute do not typically cause deformation twinning at room temperature, but a hammer blow will cause twinning.) When deformation twinning does occur during plastic straining, it is usually activated after prior deformation by slip (but see subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and various kinds of surface flaws. Internal bursts occur where the work metal is weak, possibly from pipe, porosity, segregation, or inclusions. The tensile stresses can be sufficiently high to tear the material apart internally, particularly if the hot working temperature is too high. Such internal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Internal bursts will occur, usually on the centerline where the metal is weaker, possibly from pipe, porosity, segregation, or inclusions. The tensile stresses on the centerline can be sufficiently high to tear the material apart internally, particularly if the hot working temperature is too high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Process based on machine inputs Process based on derived data from testing and monitoring Temperatures Reliance on barrel temperature settings Reliance on actual melt temperature Velocity (Injection speed) Slow to fast Fast — as fast as possible Pressures Fill/pack/hold — all same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the tensile load. The fracture appearance typically has a dull and fibrous appearance, as in the classic cup-and-cone feature of ductile fracture, along with material necking in the simple cross section of a tensile testing specimen (for example, see Fig. 166 in “Medium-Carbon Steels: Atlas of Fractographs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Prior condition and microstructure Surface defects Alloy segregation or banding Can cause localized hardness and microstructure gradients Increases tendency toward cracking Decarburization Surface is depleted of carbon. Low tensile strength, increased tendency toward...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be used to evaluate the consequence of such defects. Investigation Specimens for mechanical testing were obtained by slicing a 580 mm (23 in.) diameter shaft forging into 75 mm (3 in.) thick disks. Tensile specimens and Charpy impact specimens were located at various radial distances from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-TMF) waveforms. These two waveforms are explicitly described in the ASTM E 2368 standard ( Ref 5 ). The IP-TMF waveform phases the maximum tensile mechanical load (typically in the form of mechanical strain, although not always) at the same time as the maximum temperature occurring during the test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Source: Ref 7 Fig. 8 Dilatometer curves for a 0.6% carbon steel (60NCD11) for different applied stresses Fig. 9 Effect of tensile stress on pearlite transformation starting and ending times. Isothermal transformation at 673°C (1243 °F), eutectoid steel. The t D and t F times...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of ductile fracture in the simple cross section of a tensile testing specimen (for example, see Fig. 166 in the “Atlas of Fractographs” in Fractography , Volume 12) of the ASM Handbook. The other fracture mode is plane-stress fracture (mode II fracture), which manifests itself as the “shear lips...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... loading; the comparison is being made with the polished surfaces and the tensile specimen fracture surfaces. The inclusions in the failed retaining ring were compared with the ones in a similar component obtained from a used engine. In the case of the latter, a large number of fine and elongated (Mn, Cr...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... zone by microvoid coalescence. The two levels of magnification provide a useful combination of images, one demonstrating the IG fracture path and the other revealing the microscopic mechanism of microvoid coalescence. Fig. 5 Tensile test fracture surface of a high-purity, coarse-grained Al-4.2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a useful combination of images, one demonstrating the IG fracture path and the other revealing the microscopic mechanism of microvoid coalescence. Fig. 5 Tensile test fracture surface of a high-purity, coarse-grained Al-4.2Cu alloy with (a) intergranular facets at low magnification (10×) and (b...