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isothermal forging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of wrought products. The article addresses the types of flaws or defects that can be introduced during the steel forging process itself, including defects originating in the ingot-casting process. Defects found in nonferrous forgings—titanium, aluminum, and copper and copper alloys—also are covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the metal of the three cracked components. Bend tests verified the conclusion that the most likely mechanism of delayed quench cracking was isothermal transformation of retained austenite to martensite under the influence of residual quenching stresses. Recommendations included modifying the quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and are even more likely to occur during extrusion operations. (These are called bursts in forgings.) The severe stresses that build up internally cause transverse subsurface cracks. Fig. 6 Seam in an induction-hardened 1151 steel shaft. (a) Unetched. Original magnification: 65×. (b) 1% nital etch...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical segregation cold...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-temperature-transformation diagrams, also called isothermal transformation diagrams, are developed by heating small samples of steel to the temperature where austenite transformation structure is completely formed, that is, the austenitizing temperature (T A ), and then rapidly cooling to a temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The component was forged, and considerable directionality (banding and fibering) existed in the material. Crack propagation from bottom to top in the photograph. Courtesy of Michael West, University of Tennessee The common observation for steels is that fracture is initiated by (relatively large) sulfide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... particle in a quenched and tempered 4140 alloy steel due to a bending stress. The component was forged, and considerable directionality (banding and fibering) exists in the material. Crack propagation from bottom to top in the photograph. Courtesy of M. West, University of Tennessee The common...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... changes only occur under the combined influence of stress and temperature. For example, the cube-shaped γ-(Ni 3 Al) strengthening phase in nickel-base superalloy NASAIR 100, under normal isothermal annealing, undergoes Ostwald ripening, characterized by an increase in particle size without any shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... in accordance with the governing contractor engineering drawing. The component is part of the main landing gear and is located on the helicopter as shown in Figure 1 . This figure also shows the location of the failure (indicated by arrow). The component is forged from maraging 300 steel, and after heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... changes can be duplicated through simple heat treatment. However, some microstructural changes only occur under the combined influence of stress and temperature. For example, under normal isothermal annealing, the cube-shaped γ-(Ni 3 Al) strengthening phase in nickel-base superalloy NASAIR 100 undergoes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ) (in Portuguese) 3. Lee K.M. , Cho H.S. , Choi D.C. : Effect of isothermal treatment of SAF 2205 duplex stainless steel on migration of δ/γ interface boundary and growth of austenite . J. Alloys Compd. , 285 , 156 – 161 ( 1999 ) 10.1016/S0925-8388(99)00014-6 4. Chen T.H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... growth. Example 1: Developing Inspection Criteria for Fan Shafts. Industrial fan shafts are typically forged from medium-carbon steels. Primary fatigue stresses are generated from gravity bending and are fully reversed during each revolution at rates of 900 to 1800 revolutions per minute or 15...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... damage. The methane bubbles nucleate as carbides grow under methane pressure and link up to form fissures and cracks, as shown in Fig. 8 ( Ref 4 ). Such internal hydrogen cracks occurring in large steam turbine forgings are known as “hydrogen flakes” due to their cornflakelike appearance. Fig. 8...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... along elongated grains in heavily worked material, such as severely extruded alloys, or along the parting lines of some forgings ( Fig. 2b ). Grain facets may also be masked, such as by oxides, as is common of IG creep fracture surfaces. Fig. 1 SEM images of (a) IG fracture in ion-nitrided layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... size is coarse. In some cases, however, the IG features may not be as obvious. For example, IG fractures may have a relatively smooth, featureless fracture surface along elongated grains in heavily worked material, such as severely extruded alloys, or along the parting lines of some forgings ( Fig. 2b...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rates of loading. Strain-rate sensitivity data have been compiled for many materials and is important in analysis of manufacturing operations involving deformation (see, for example, Forming and Forging , Volume 14, ASM Handbook ). The amount of distortion that can occur at high rates of loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rates of loading. Strain-rate sensitivity data have been compiled for many materials and are important in analysis of manufacturing operations involving deformation (see, for example, Forming and Forging , Volume 14 of the ASM Handbook , 1988). The amount of distortion that can occur at high rates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1