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iron-copper graphite

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was suspected. Metallurgical examination on two representative castings supported the conclusions that the cracks in these gray iron door closers that were present either before or during the heat treatment were attributed to a substandard microstructure of the wrong type of graphite combined with excessive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... in addition to the comparatively low strength. First, the operating stress was raised locally by the sharp-edged groove, and second, the fracture resistance of the cast iron was lowered at this critical point by the existence of a ferritic bright border. The granular precipitate of the graphite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Three sprinkler system dry pipe valve castings (class 30 gray iron), two that had failed in service and one that had been rejected during machining because of porosity, were submitted for examination. The two failures consisted of cracks in a seating face. All three were from the same...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as magnesium or zinc, may be introduced into the galvanic assembly. The most active member will corrode while providing cathodic protection to the other members in the galvanic assembly (for example, zinc anodes in cast iron waterboxes of copper alloy water-cooled heat exchangers). Cathodic protection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the other members in the galvanic assembly (for example, zinc anodes in cast iron waterboxes of copper alloy water-cooled heat exchangers). Cathodic protection is often used for the protection of underground or underwater steel structures. The use of cathodic protection for long-term corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... This happened in a calendaring machine in which a heavy cast iron calendar roller (of about 9 tons as reported) is supported at two ends by two copper alloy bearings. The failure occurred when a replacement bearing was installed at the end of the normal service life of the original one, which lasted...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and copper. In determining if gas evolution can cause porosity, the thermodynamics for the reactions must be evaluated, as discussed in the article “Gases in Metals” in Casting, Volume 15 of ASM Handbook . The gases in cast iron that can cause porosity are hydrogen and nitrogen. Aluminum and copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). Original magnification: 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. Original magnification: 350×. (c) Parabolic shear dimples in cast Ti-6Al...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., which can be impregnated with lubricant. For a little higher cost, cast iron bearings can be used, particularly for large and flat surfaces. Polymers, gray cast iron (with large amounts of graphite), and bronzes (see the section “Bronze Bearing Materials” in this article) are selected as bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
..., shown in Fig. 3 , developed because low-melting point material melted and ran out between the dendrites. Table 1 lists compositions of crown deposit material and Piston No. 1. Note that amounts of the elements with higher melting points (iron, nickel, zinc, and copper) are greater in the deposit than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is confined to a small area of the failure. All etched with nital. 500× Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the debris showed the major constituent to be iron with traces of phosphorus, manganese, sodium, calcium, copper, zinc, potassium, silicon, chromium, and molybdenum. Thus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by cleavage in second-phase (silicon) particles and other second phases. Fig. 1 SEM images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. 350×. (c...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the nickel-iron matrix Deposition of graphite on the alloy surface in different orientations Growth of graphite into the metal phase by carbon atoms from the solid solution, attaching to graphite planes growing vertical to the metal surface Destruction of the metal phase by the inward-growing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., identifying and applying preventive and mitigative measures, and monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation” ( Ref 3 ). The Scope of Microbial Activity Microorganisms can directly or indirectly affect the integrity of many materials. Most metals, including iron, copper, nickel, aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Microstructural Analysis Figures 14 and 15 are micrographs of the failed valve, showing a typical etched microstructure ofpearlite gray cast iron, type A, with size 3 graphite flake distribution. Fig. 14 Microstucture of sample from failed valve. 62×. Fig. 15 Microstucture of sample from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can promote wear. The increased use of a type of cast iron known as compacted graphite iron (CGI) often results from this conundrum, because it can offer increased strength, when compared to aluminum alloys, and reduced weight, when compared to other cast irons. Although denser than aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... disc was specified to be an ASTM A395 60-40-18 ductile iron casting with a subsequent anneal heat treatment. A mostly ferritic microstructure with no massive carbides was specified. In addition, graphite formation was required to contain a minimum of 90% types I and II graphite. A hardness range of 143...