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iron-copper

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the degradation of various protective systems, such as corrosion inhibitors and lubricants. The article describes the failure analysis of steel, iron, copper, aluminum, and their alloys. It also discusses the probes available to monitor conditions relevant to MIC in industrial systems and the sampling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in a typical thermally disturbed zone which extended into the bolt to the greatest depth in the centre-most region. Across the fracture surface an iron-copper alloy had formed, the depth of this being approximately 1 64 in.; in some regions there was a layer of copper super-imposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was the subject of a failure investigation to determine the cause and location of the leaks. Corrosion products primarily contained copper oxide, as would be expected from a copper tubing. The product also exhibited the presence of a significant amount of iron oxides. Metallographic cross sectioning of the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). Fig. 4 presents EDS results for the bulk internal deposits from Sample 1. The EDS and XRD analysis results were similar for all four tube samples. XRD identified the iron oxide magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), metallic copper (Cu), the iron oxides hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and wüstite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... shows the crystalline morphology of the corroded surfaces typical of intergranular attack. EDS analysis of this area revealed the presence of copper, nickel, chlorine and iron. The crystals observed in Figure 1b were mostly copper with very little nickel (0.43 wt pct). Metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... iron) bearing that was not lubricated was placed on one side of the axle, while a lubricated copper-base bearing was put on the other side. The car (a hopper car with a 63,500-kg, or 140,000-lb, load) was run for 108 km (67 miles) without burning off the journal, although it was red hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0046505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... been in service approximately 21 months. The valve consisted of a cast copper alloy clapper plate that was held closed by a pivoted malleable iron latch ( Fig. 1a ). The latch and top surface of the clapper plate were usually in a sanitary-water environment (stabilized, chlorinated well water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... was revealed by metallography which was typical of cracking by corrosion fatigue mechanism. Corrosion deposits on both the inside- and outside-diam surfaces were found in the tubes. The presence of copper, zinc, iron, and small amounts of chloride, sulfur, silicon, tin, and manganese was revealed by energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... showed the presence of copper as well as iron, manganese and silicon. The second specimen was used to determine the thickness of the scale. It was found to be approximately 1 micrometre. Fig. 6 A scanning electron microscope picture of the “rock candy” fracture surface. One...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... This happened in a calendaring machine in which a heavy cast iron calendar roller (of about 9 tons as reported) is supported at two ends by two copper alloy bearings. The failure occurred when a replacement bearing was installed at the end of the normal service life of the original one, which lasted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... electron microscopy of the contacts. A sequence of iron-aluminum compositions that shift from the pure aluminum of the wire to the nearly pure iron of the screw was revealed by analyses of two distinct layers formed on the aluminum/iron region. The compositions were found to correspond to specific...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract A die-cast zinc adapter used in a snowthrower failed catastrophically in a brittle overload manner. The component had a chemical composition similar to standard zinc alloy ZA-27 (UNS Z35840), although the iron content was much higher and the copper slightly lower. The mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Sprinkler system in which a malleable iron deluge clapper latch failed from galvanic attack caused by contact with a copper alloy clapper in stagnant water. (a) Schematic illustration of sprinkler system showing deluge clapper latch that failed. (b) Photograph of clapper latch showing More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Deposits Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the internal deposits in the tube detected a major amount of iron, plus minor to trace amounts of silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, chromium, nickel, and copper. The composition of the deposit is not unusual for a boiler using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that the new crack tip was formed and began to travel and spread, as shown in Fig. 4d , e . However, another theory suggests that since iron oxidizes more easily than copper, the preferential oxidation of iron on the surface causes copper enrichment during induction heating [ 2 ]. The enriched phase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... potassium, phosphorus, carbon, and oxygen, along with small amounts of sodium, magnesium, sulfur, and chlorine. The residue that was left after drying the rinse water was iron, silicon, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, copper, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, carbon, and oxygen. The EDS results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Intergranular etching of embrittled tube Crack Origins/Paths A fracture surface was produced and examined in the scanning electron microscope (SEM); a typical brittle failure was noted. With energy-dispersive analysis, only copper, nickel, iron, and manganese were detected, and all constituents were...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Analysis of the rinse water residue by EDS revealed relatively high amounts of potassium, copper, carbon, and oxygen, along with iron, silicon, sodium, magnesium, calcium, sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The horizontal heat-exchanger tubes made of copper alloy C70600, in one of two hydraulic-oil coolers in an electric power plant, leaked after 18 months of service. River water was used as the coolant in the heat-exchanger tubes. Several nodules on the inner surface and holes through...