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iron-chromium partial phase diagram

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., they give a good idea of the conditions required for a metal to form a specific compound. Fig. 9 Stability diagrams for oxides and sulfides of iron, nickel, and chromium as a function of oxygen and sulfur partial pressures. Source: Ref 3 These diagrams specify the stable phases in contact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Results of chemical analysis Table 1 Results of chemical analysis Element Composition, % Implant ASTM F-75 requirements Chromium 27.9 27.0–30.0 Molybdenum 6.11 5.0–7.0 Nickel 0.06 1.0 (max) Iron 0.24 0.75 (max) Carbon 0.245 0.35 (max) Silicon 0.68 1.0...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 1 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 1 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric resistance welded tube Iron oxides alone are not protective above 550 °C (1020 °F) ( Ref 5 ). Chromium, aluminum, and/or silicon assist in forming scales, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The author also thanks M.A. Streicher for his comprehensive analysis and fundamental understanding of ferritic stainless steels. References References 1. Streicher M.A. : “ The Role of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Heat Treatment in the Dissolution of Iron-Chromium Alloys in Acids ,” Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the formation of volatile metal chlorides. If conditions permit, evaporative weight loss can occur due to the high vapor pressures of iron and chromium chlorides. Chlorides accumulate rapidly on metallic surfaces from burning plastic waste. Typical deposits contain 21 to 27% Cl when the flue gas contains 40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... filler metals (AWS BAg-1, AWS BAg-2) and with flux. This reaction takes place when the stainless steels are heated under molten brazed flux with a selective depletion of chromium from the faying surfaces, thereby exposing a thin layer of chromium-free iron. This surface layer is readily attacked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... stainless steel cladding 3 mm overlay Cone plate separating combustion chamber from quench chamber 1-in. thick, 1¼ Cr–½ Mo steel (ASTM SA-387 Grade 11, Class 2) Quench ring Incoloy 825, nickel–ironchromium alloy Dip tube ¼-in. thick tube, Incoloy 825, nickel–ironchromium alloy Draft tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for an unalloyed steel (American Iron and Steel Institute, or AISI, 1045) in Fig. 1 . Time-temperature-transformation diagrams can only be read along the isotherms. The temperature A 1 is where transformation to austenite begins, and temperature A 3 is where the transformation to austenite is complete. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...). Sigma is a brittle, intermetallic, chromium-rich phase that forms in austenitic stainless steels after prolonged exposure to temperatures in the 595 to 930 °C (1100 to 1700 °F) range. Only alloys containing more than approximately 16.5% Cr are affected. The effects of sigma are variable, depending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of alloy chemistry (“H” grades) Specification of hardenability (hardness at specific “J” positions on Jominy end quench) Alloy selection Some steel grades prone to macrosegregation of chromium (banding) or gross segregation of manganese (AISI 1340, 1536, 4140H, 4340) Quench sensitivity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... not only having a similar amount of the alloying element in question, but also having the same matrix element and a similar concentration of alloying element. For example, it may not be a good idea to use a nickel-base superalloy with 15% chromium as a calibration check for an iron-base stainless steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... illustrated in binary alloys that contain phases of differing corrosion potentials. The grain in one phase becomes anodic to grain in the second phase in the microstructure, thus producing an electrolytic cell when the proper electrolyte is present. Another illustration is ductile cast iron, where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... depending on the component geometry. Mechanical conditions and metallurgical features can influence the appearance of MVC. Examples are shown for a ferritic steel ( Fig. 1a ), ductile iron ( Fig. 1b ), and cast titanium alloy ( Fig. 1c ). The dimple features are evident in equiaxed form for tensile loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in binary alloys that contain phases of differing corrosion potentials. The grain in one phase becomes anodic to the grain in the second phase in the microstructure, thus producing an electrolytic cell when the proper electrolyte is present. Another illustration is ductile cast iron, where...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... essentially inert and act as if they were noble metals such as platinum and gold. Fortunately, from an engineering standpoint, the metals most susceptible to this kind of behavior are the common engineering and structural materials, including iron, nickel, silicon, chromium, titanium, and alloys containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... designed to produce small-amplitude rotational movement between two annuli in the first case, and an annulus and a flat in the second case ( Ref 4 ). The movement was controlled by a long lever system. Because the resultant debris on steel specimens was the red iron oxide α-Fe 2 O 3 , which had risen from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by cleavage in second-phase (silicon) particles and other second phases. Fig. 1 SEM images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. 350×. (c...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-Base Superalloys , DMIC Report 171, Defense Metals Information Center, Battelle Memorial Institute , Columbus ( 1962 ). 21. Rivlin V. G. , “6: Critical Evaluation of Constitution of Cobalt-Chromium-Iron and Cobalt-Iron-Nickel Systems” , Int. Metals Rev. , Vol. 26 , p. 269 ( 1981...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... graphitization that occurs in iron-base alloys without adequate carbide stabilizing elements present. Iron carbide (cementite) decomposes to graphite and iron. Normally, chromium is added to prevent this. In situ graphitization is also affected strongly by molybdenum content and deoxidation practice. The extent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Other potential microstructural changes include in situ graphitization that occurs in iron-base alloys without adequate carbide-stabilizing elements present. Iron carbide (cementite) decomposes to graphite and iron. Chromium is typically added to prevent this. In situ graphitization is also affected...