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iron-carbon system

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A flanged 100 mm (4 in.) diam low-carbon steel spool piece lined with Teflon was removed from a sulfuric acid denitrification system after cracks were observed in the painted coating. Visual and microstructural examination along with SEM fractography revealed scaled iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... microorganisms accumulate inorganic compounds such as phosphorites, carbonates, silicates, iron, and manganese oxides [ 4 – 8 ]. It is also well known that the kidney stone formation and scale deposition in oral cavity were due to bacterial activity [ 9 ]. Besides, calcium accumulation was also noticed in hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../brownish-black iron (III) oxides (goethite, magnetite, maghemite, hematite) 0.04–0.2 0.0016–0.008 Anaerobic corrosion (H + as electron acceptor) Pasty or dispersed white iron (II) carbonate (siderite) 0.002–0.01 (general corrosion) 0.00008–0.0004 (general corrosion) Anaerobic microbiologically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Acceptors Other electron acceptors involved in microbial metabolism include oxygen, nitrate, iron (III), and carbon dioxide. All of these species could theoretically be involved as the electron acceptor, X , in the corrosion of metals ( Eq 1 ) but evidence for direct MIC based on other electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-silicon ferritic iron castings of ASTM International specification A1095 Table 3 Compositions (in wt%) of the high-silicon ferritic iron castings of ASTM International specification A1095 Element Type (a) SG SiMo MG SiMo CG SiMo Carbon 2.90–3.70 2.80–3.60 2.70–3.50...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In the emf series, cadmium is cathodic to iron, but in the galvanic series (at least in seawater), cadmium is anodic to iron. Thus, if only the emf series were used to predict the behavior of a ferrous metal system, cadmium would not be chosen as a sacrificial protective coating, yet this is the principal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to iron. Thus, if only the emf series were used to predict the behavior of a ferrous metal system, cadmium would not be chosen as a sacrificial protective coating, yet this is the principal use for cadmium plating on steel. Standard emf series of metals Table 1 Standard emf series of metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract High-level radioactive wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials are kept in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The wastes consist primarily of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Each of the tanks is equipped...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... solidification rate, is most susceptible, while white iron, having the most rapid rate, is least susceptible. By analyzing the pinhole shape and chemistry, it can be learned which gases are present. For example, a hydrogen-reaction pinhole has a graphite-free layer and a graphite film. A carbon monoxide (CO...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the inner wall of a stainless steel tube There is no iron- or nickel-base alloy that is absolutely resistant to metal dusting attack. Research is focused on the reaction chain from the formation of alloy substrate oxide layers and deteriorating conditions. Accordingly, carbon and coke deposition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... potassium, phosphorus, carbon, and oxygen, along with small amounts of sodium, magnesium, sulfur, and chlorine. The residue that was left after drying the rinse water was iron, silicon, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, copper, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, carbon, and oxygen. The EDS results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... and sulfur found in the scale on the piping and in the molecular sieves indicated that oxygen was present in the system. At pressures of 2070 kPa (300 psi) or more, the presence of small amounts of oxygen promotes hydrogen sulfide corrosion of carbon steel, even at room temperature. Thus, oxygen combined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to form iron oxide: (Eq 1) 4 H 2 O + 3 Fe → 3 Fe 3 O 4 + 4 H 2 Furnace walls may also have other deposits from impurities in the boiler feedwater. Because these deposits and scale have a lower thermal conductivity than the steel tube, the net effect is an increase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...-reaction corresponding to the anodic oxidation of iron is the reduction of hydrogen, which dissolved in the steel; rapid corrosion means high hydrogen levels in the steel, and high temperatures permit high diffusivity of carbon to a void where, with the ubiquitous hydrogen, it can react to generate methane...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... suction pipe and the compressor volute exhibited more surface rust than is typical of hermetic systems. Regions of the casing exhibited evidence of the impeller rubbing. Surface Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification The high-temperature reactions of halohydro-carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the (bright) iron based particles in Fig. 1(b) . Some traces of carbon are also seen here, probably an oily residue on the flake. The silicon may be due to a dirt contaminant. (b) Portion of the scan obtained from one of the (dark) aluminum based particles. The unlabeled peak at the far left of both plots...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 16 Magnetic iron oxide 2.9 20 Silicate scale (porous) 0.09 0.6 Steel 24.5–44.7 170–310 (a) Source: Ref 1 . (b) Source Ref 2 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and austenitic steels Table 5 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... areas and bulk metal), thus suggesting the local variations in microstructure did not contribute to the failure process. Elemental analysis of the metal wheel hub using EDS on the SEM revealed that the primarily iron alloy contained 1.328 wt.% silicon ( Fig. 4 ), and the carbon analysis (3.57 wt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Some Ferrous Metals , J. Met. , Vol 5 , 1953 , p 44 10.1007/BF03397446 51. Marandet B. , Effect of Cold Work on the Dissolution and Diffusion of Hydrogen in Unalloyed Carbon Steels , Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement of Iron Base Alloys , Staehle R.W...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... … Sulfate-reducing bactria 10 4 /ml … Iron bacteria ( Gallionella ) Very abundant … (a) Per “Prevention and Control of Water-Caused Problems in Building Potable Water Systems,” TPC Publ. 7, National Association of Corrosion Engineers It was not truly potable because of its elevated...