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iron-carbon phase diagram

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Nickel 30.0–35.0 31.2 Chromium 19.0–23.0 19.6 Iron 39.5 min 46.7 Carbon 0.05–0.10 0.099 Aluminum 0.15–0.60 0.68 Titanium 0.15–0.60 0.32 Several cross sections of the damaged area as well as an unaffected area were examined metallographically using an optical microscope...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., it is possible to explain why and how redox variations are harmful to any refractory containing iron oxides as impurities; how the reduction of magnesia to magnesium gas and the reoxidation to MgO can be used with great advantage for MgO-carbon bricks (a destruction-reconstruction mechanism that leads...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature and the M s may be determined in order to construct a CCT diagram, such as the one shown for an unalloyed carbon steel (AISI 1045) in Fig. 2 . Continuous cooling transformation curves provide data on the temperatures for each phase transformation, the amount of transformation product obtained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Salter W.J.M. and Pickering F.B. : J. Iron Steel Inst. , 1969 , pp. 207 and 992 . 9. Dahl W. : Stahl Eisen. , 1966 , pp. 86 and 796 . 10. Baker T.J. and Charles J.A. : J. Iron Steel Inst. , 1972 , pp. 210 and 680 . 11. Johnson R.F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... amounts, nor was oxygen, except near a filled branch crack that also showed small amounts of carbon. Phosphorus was absent, and iron, chromium, and nickel were present in amounts commensurate with the weld material. Approximately 4% S was present in the filled branch crack, and the precipitates contained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., % Implant ASTM F-75 requirements Chromium 27.9 27.0–30.0 Molybdenum 6.11 5.0–7.0 Nickel 0.06 1.0 (max) Iron 0.24 0.75 (max) Carbon 0.245 0.35 (max) Silicon 0.68 1.0 (max) Manganes 0.32 1.0 (max) Cobalt … bal Quality control includes tensile testing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of carbide in plain low-carbon steel is as follows. In low-carbon steel before service, the carbide is present as pearlite, which consists of alternate lamellae of iron carbide and ferrite. Following heating, the pearlite starts to spheroidize, sometimes known as divorce of pearlite, and continued heating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of SAE-192 carbon steel contains ferrite and pearlite phases. However, the microstructure of tube 2 in the fracture area (as well as at some distance from the rupture), consisted of ferrite with grain boundary cementite or spheroidal carbides (Fe 3 C) and no pearlite phases. Occurrence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Feedwater Economizer Performance Test Results and Metallographic Examination Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgments References References 1. Streicher M.A. : “ The Role of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Heat Treatment in the Dissolution of Iron-Chromium Alloys in Acids ,” Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and Technology , 2nd ed. , Academic Press , 1979 , p 315 7. Properties and Selection: Iron and Steels , Vol 1 , Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , American Society for Metals , 1978 , p 425 8. French D.N. , Failures of Boilers and Related Equipment , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the pipe surface. The period of time which is needed for reducing the chromia layer is called incubation time. After the chromia layer diminishes, carburization process or metal dusting attack starts. This process continues by diffusion of carbon on the pipe and forms (chromium, iron) carbide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... reduction, double helical gearing and it had operated satisfactorily for five years. The gearbox casing was a grey iron casting and the main gear wheel, the remains of which can be seen in Figure 1 , consisted of a cast iron, double-spoked wheel, on to the periphery of which was shrunk two steel rims...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... ( 1962 ). 21. Rivlin V. G. , “6: Critical Evaluation of Constitution of Cobalt-Chromium-Iron and Cobalt-Iron-Nickel Systems” , Int. Metals Rev. , Vol. 26 , p. 269 ( 1981 ). 10.1179/imtr.1981.26.1.269 22. El Dahshan M. E. , Whittle D. P. and Stringer J...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to join metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...-aluminum layer was found, indicating that aluminum containing alloys had been melted in this pot. The diffusion of aluminum into the steel apparently increased the chemical potential of carbon in iron to the extent that it was swept ahead of the aluminum alloy zone. The interface between the iron-aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Acceptors Other electron acceptors involved in microbial metabolism include oxygen, nitrate, iron (III), and carbon dioxide. All of these species could theoretically be involved as the electron acceptor, X , in the corrosion of metals ( Eq 1 ) but evidence for direct MIC based on other electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... 570 C, the scale formed on iron in air consists of wustite (FeO), magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). Below 570 C, only magnetite and hematite are formed since wustite decomposes into magnetite and α-iron by a eutectoid reaction at 570 C. Thus, from a study of phases present in the scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... decarburization) followed by a reduced carbon layer (partial decarburization), or decarb may exist as just a reduced carbon area at the surface, with the carbon increasing to the base carbon level of the steel or cast iron. This reduced carbon area is called the decarburized depth. Decarburization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... illustrated in binary alloys that contain phases of differing corrosion potentials. The grain in one phase becomes anodic to the grain in the second phase in the microstructure, thus producing an electrolytic cell when the proper electrolyte is present. Another illustration is ductile cast iron, where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... procedures. For instance, in the case of carbon steel, iron produces a rich and intense spectrum that can interfere with the analytes of interest. Careful matching of calibration standards to the elemental matrix of the specimen and the acid solvent is critical in order to produce valid data. Proper...