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iron-carbon alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-resistant alloy, such as nickel, nickel-base alloy, or stainless steel, was recommended. As an immediate measure to halt the anode decay, placing strainers in the inlets of the cells was suggested to filter the iron powder. The corroded carbon steel top plates were clad using E NiCrFe-2 electrodes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0045909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... with a windowless detector from the two areas indicated in Fig. 4(a) . (a) From the inclusion area showing the presence of iron, oxygen, and some carbon. (b) From the steel matrix showing the presence of only iron with a trace of carbon Fig. 4 X-ray maps from a section of the failed melting pot shown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the metal remains unchanged. The required conditions for this are apparently provided by the moist hydrogen atmosphere of the annealing furnace, in which the chromium is oxidised, whilst the oxides of iron and nickel are reduced. Even the carbon suffers incomplete combustion, and is enriched in the core...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that normally reached the highest temperature in service. Fig. 1 Orchard heater of galvanized low-carbon steel that broke in a brittle manner because of an iron-zinc intermetallic compound along the grain boundaries. Dimensions given in inches. View A-A: micrograph of an etched section that shows...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... solidification rate, is most susceptible, while white iron, having the most rapid rate, is least susceptible. By analyzing the pinhole shape and chemistry, it can be learned which gases are present. For example, a hydrogen-reaction pinhole has a graphite-free layer and a graphite film. A carbon monoxide (CO...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the galvanic series, it is a list of metals and alloys arranged according to their relative potentials in a given environment. Generally, the relative positions of metals and alloys in both emf and galvanic series are the same. An exception is the position of cadmium with respect to iron and its alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... environment. Generally, the relative positions of metals and alloys in both emf and galvanic series are the same. An exception is the position of cadmium with respect to iron and its alloys. In the emf series, cadmium is cathodic to iron, but in the galvanic series (at least in seawater), cadmium is anodic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the pipe surface. The period of time which is needed for reducing the chromia layer is called incubation time. After the chromia layer diminishes, carburization process or metal dusting attack starts. This process continues by diffusion of carbon on the pipe and forms (chromium, iron) carbide...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... seen in (a) are invisible in this backscatter imaging mode. Fig. 2 Typical EDS scan of a polymeric hydrocarbon material Fig. 4 Plot from EDS scan of low carbon steel sheet at (a) 15 keV and (b) 5 keV. The high energy iron peaks (above 5 keV) are missing in the spectrum in (b...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion of reheater and superheater tubes ( Ref 35 ). Molten sodium pyrosulfates (Na 2 S 2 O 7 : m.p. 400 °C, or 750 °F) or potassium pyrosulfates (K 2 S 2 O 7 : m.p. <300 °C, or <570 °F) react with carbon steels by dissolving the protective oxide film and then reacting with iron to cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../brownish-black iron (III) oxides (goethite, magnetite, maghemite, hematite) 0.04–0.2 0.0016–0.008 Anaerobic corrosion (H + as electron acceptor) Pasty or dispersed white iron (II) carbonate (siderite) 0.002–0.01 (general corrosion) 0.00008–0.0004 (general corrosion) Anaerobic microbiologically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... annealing at 650 °C (1200 °F). The intermediate nickel-iron alloy bond layer aids in minimizing the effects of differences of coefficients of thermal expansion between the carbon steel and stainless steel cladding caused by stress-relief annealing. Another solution is to shot-peen the clad surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Acceptors Other electron acceptors involved in microbial metabolism include oxygen, nitrate, iron (III), and carbon dioxide. All of these species could theoretically be involved as the electron acceptor, X , in the corrosion of metals ( Eq 1 ) but evidence for direct MIC based on other electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...-aluminum layer was found, indicating that aluminum containing alloys had been melted in this pot. The diffusion of aluminum into the steel apparently increased the chemical potential of carbon in iron to the extent that it was swept ahead of the aluminum alloy zone. The interface between the iron-aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). Original magnification: 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. Original magnification: 350×. (c) Parabolic shear dimples in cast Ti-6Al...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and Ni alloying elements are missing in the failed wrench socket affecting its strength and resistance to failure. Fig. 10 EDS spectrum of the region shown in Fig. 9 showing contaminant elements of Al and S along with expected iron oxide constituents Fig. 11 X-ray map of the region...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Conference Proceedings , Vol XXII , The Iron and Steel Society , 1985 , p 75 – 87 11. Smith W.F. , Hot-Work Tool Steels , Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys , McGraw-Hill Book Company , 1981 , p 382 – 386 12. Patt W. , Production and Properties of High-Cr-Rolls...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... an estimate of volumetric changes as a function of carbon content for different metallurgical transformations ( Ref 3 , 4 ). Atomic volumes of selected microstructural constituents of ferrous alloys Table 1 Atomic volumes of selected microstructural constituents of ferrous alloys Phase Apparent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Some Ferrous Metals , J. Met. , Vol 5 , 1953 , p 44 10.1007/BF03397446 51. Marandet B. , Effect of Cold Work on the Dissolution and Diffusion of Hydrogen in Unalloyed Carbon Steels , Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement of Iron Base Alloys , Staehle R.W...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The reaction of the oxygen decarburisation takes place by the formation of carbon oxide on the surface. In slightly oxydizing atmospheres like wet hydrogen the velocity of decarburisation is determined by the diffusion velocity of carbon in iron, however in the presence of more oxydizing gases like oxygen...