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iron-base alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... a mixture of Cr 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 . The results for 705 °C (1300 °F) indicate that the iron-base alloys and alloys 800 and 825 had predominantly Fe 2 O 3 - or M 3 O 4 -type scales, while nickel-base alloys exhibited Cr 2 O 3 - or Al 2 O 3 -type scales. The results for 925 °C (1700 °F) indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., 347 925 1695 6 330 1150 2100 6 405, 410 705 1300 6 416 675 1245 6 420 620 1150 6 430 815 1500 6 440 760 1400 6 442 980 1795 6 446 1095 2005 6 Superalloys N-155 iron-base superalloy 1040 1905 3 S-816 cobalt-base alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... the crack. Often, in iron-base alloys, the crack contains a metallic filament enclosed by a chromium-rich layer. The crack zone is usually hard (Vickers Hardness > 200 Hv). The hardness increase is attributed to intermediate temperature-aging reactions that are often accelerated by prior cold work...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... mainly of chromium oxide with islands of iron/nickel sulfide and chromium sulfide. At the interface between the scale and the base metal chromium sulfide predominated ( Fig. 3 ). The intergranular scale consisted mainly of chromium sulfide with some chromium oxide ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 3 X-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... heating of the bridgewire. Evidence of severe corrosion was revealed on examination of the nickel-chromium-iron alloy bridgewire and the nickel-iron alloy pins. Metallic elements in the pin or bridgewire and substantial amounts of chlorine were detected from the x-ray spectra. Morphological changes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... cladding was absent in more than 50% of the area. Fig. 2 Hemispherical corrosion pits in the exposed carbon steel base metal. Remaining stainless steel cladding appears as gray islands. The bottoms of the pits were covered with reddish brown iron oxides, and the remaining cladding appeared...
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 3 Standardless semi-quantitative SEM/EDS element analysis data and graph of a crack fracture surface. Base metal elements revealed that the impeller material was an AISI 4300 alloy steel. Element wt% at.% Silicon 0.27 0.53 Chromium 1.10 1.18 Manganese 0.88 More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the inner wall of a stainless steel tube There is no iron- or nickel-base alloy that is absolutely resistant to metal dusting attack. Research is focused on the reaction chain from the formation of alloy substrate oxide layers and deteriorating conditions. Accordingly, carbon and coke deposition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... introduced during the steelmaking process. Leakage Liquid metals Magnesium base alloys Melting pots Nonmetallic inclusions 1022 UNS G10220 1020 UNS G10200 Erosive wear (Other, general, or unspecified) processing-related failures A steel pot used to hold molten magnesium alloys leaked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of biogenic iron sulfide to elemental sulfur in oxygenated water ( Ref 41 ). Sulfur oxyanions, such as thiosulfate and tetrathionate, have been shown to reduce the pitting potential of stainless steel and promote the localized corrosion of both stainless steels and nickel-base alloys (e.g., Inconels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the establishment of a well-protected transfer layer and leads to rapid wear. Failure Leaded bronze bearing Metallic wear debris Cu-7.6Sn-17.4Pb Cu-6.6Sn-5.8Pb (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) wear 1. Introduction Copper-based alloys have been of great practical importance in industrial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... relevance of SRP, Rabus et al. ( Ref 17 ) describe their role in MIC based on genomic information available at the time of publication. Chemical corrosion of steel under anaerobic conditions in near-neutral pH conditions is relatively slow. The fact that the corrosion of iron and steel in wet anaerobic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... metal or its alloy to diffuse into the base metal, so that the new crack tip was formed and began to travel and spread, as shown in Fig. 4d , e . However, another theory suggests that since iron oxidizes more easily than copper, the preferential oxidation of iron on the surface causes copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0092135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract A shotgun barrel fabricated from 1138 steel deformed when test firing alternative nontoxic ammunition. The test shells contained soft iron shot, which at 72 HB, is much harder than traditional lead shot (typically 30 to 40 HB). An investigation based on ID and OD profiling supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with a corrosion-resistant alloy, such as nickel, nickel-base alloy, or stainless steel, was recommended. As an immediate measure to halt the anode decay, placing strainers in the inlets of the cells was suggested to filter the iron powder. The corroded carbon steel top plates were clad using E NiCrFe-2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... not only having a similar amount of the alloying element in question, but also having the same matrix element and a similar concentration of alloying element. For example, it may not be a good idea to use a nickel-base superalloy with 15% chromium as a calibration check for an iron-base stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and failed and intact nuts. Magnification: 1× Fig6 Typical microstructure for the failed austenitic stainless steel bolt. Magnification: 200× Fig. 7 Typical microstructure for the nickel-base alloy of intact nut. Magnification: 200× Fig. 8 Metallographic microstructure revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in the article “Malleable Iron” in Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys , Volume 1 of ASM Handbook. ) In piping systems, erosion-corrosion can be reduced by increasing the diameter of the pipe, thus decreasing velocity and turbulence. The streamlining of bends is useful...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Chemical composition of base material Table 1 Chemical composition of base material Element Results UNS C87600 Si 4.38 3.5–4.5 Fe 0.06 0.20 max Cu >88.0 88.0 min Mn 0.04 0.25 max Ni <0.01 … Zn 4.72 4.0–7.0 Pb 0.03 0.09 max Sn <0.01...