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iron alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... by electrical heating of the bridgewire. Evidence of severe corrosion was revealed on examination of the nickel-chromium-iron alloy bridgewire and the nickel-iron alloy pins. Metallic elements in the pin or bridgewire and substantial amounts of chlorine were detected from the x-ray spectra. Morphological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for potential casting applications so that the likelihood of failure to perform the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... casting. Cast iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0045909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract A hot rolled, low-carbon steel pot used to melt magnesium alloys leaked, releasing about 35 kg (80 lb) of molten magnesium onto the foundry floor and causing an extensive fire. Due to the fire, the original leakage hole could not be investigated. Samples of the failed pot were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... This form of internal oxidation is, in the case of Ni-Cr alloys, known as green rot. Alloys containing iron should be more resistant. As a preventive measure it was recommended to reduce the operating temperature of the strip sufficiently to allow the use of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys. Electric heating elements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract A die-cast zinc adapter used in a snowthrower failed catastrophically in a brittle overload manner. The component had a chemical composition similar to standard zinc alloy ZA-27 (UNS Z35840), although the iron content was much higher and the copper slightly lower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... alloy formation. Even in the case of steel parts with lower silicon contents the reaction between iron and zinc can continue until the pure zinc layer has been consumed entirely if the work piece is not cooled sufficiently after withdrawal. Coating defects Galvanized steels Hot dip galvanizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0046505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... been in service approximately 21 months. The valve consisted of a cast copper alloy clapper plate that was held closed by a pivoted malleable iron latch ( Fig. 1a ). The latch and top surface of the clapper plate were usually in a sanitary-water environment (stabilized, chlorinated well water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the conclusion that prolonged heating of the galvanized steel heater shells caused the zinc-rich surface to become alloyed with iron and reduce the number of layers. Also, heating caused zinc to diffuse along grain boundaries toward the center of the sheet. Zinc in the grain boundaries reacted with iron to form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-resistant alloy, such as nickel, nickel-base alloy, or stainless steel, was recommended. As an immediate measure to halt the anode decay, placing strainers in the inlets of the cells was suggested to filter the iron powder. The corroded carbon steel top plates were clad using E NiCrFe-2 electrodes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of power station condenser tubing cooled by seawater for two copper alloys, an aluminum brass alloyed with arsenic (UNS C68700, ASTM B111, or Cu-Zn-20Al DIN17660), and a cupronickel 70-30 alloy with iron added (C71500, ASTM B111, or Cu-Ni-30Fe DIN17665)) supported the conclusion that the failure was caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A high-chromium white cast iron shell liner installed in an ore crusher sustained impact damage in the course of operation. Visual-optical examination revealed horizontal cracks on the surface of the liner along with particles that had fractured off. Metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... out of the pitted areas. Alternatively polishing and etching micro-sections for viewing at high magnification made crack detail more visible. Optical and scanning electron micrographs showed cracking in austenitic cast steel and cast iron due to both internal tensile and critical residual stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to cavitation. Alloy cast iron Impellers Rotary pumps GGL NiCuCr 15 6 2 Cavitation wear The two damaged impellers made of austenitic cast iron came from a rotary pump used for pumping brine mixed with drifting sand. On one of the impellers, pieces were broken out of the back wall in four places...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The horizontal heat-exchanger tubes made of copper alloy C70600, in one of two hydraulic-oil coolers in an electric power plant, leaked after 18 months of service. River water was used as the coolant in the heat-exchanger tubes. Several nodules on the inner surface and holes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Examination of a cracked nose landing gear cylinder made of AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni alloy steel proved that the part started to fail on the inside diam. When the nucleus of the stress-corrosion crack was studied in detail, iron oxide was found on the fracture surface. A 6500x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract An impact breaker bar showed signs of rapid wear. The nominal composition of this chromium alloy cast iron was Fe-2.75C-0.75Mn-0.5Si-0.5Ni-19.5Cr-1.1Mo. The measured hardness of this bar was 450 to 500 HRB. The desired hardness for this material after air hardening is 600...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A commercial hybrid-iron golf club fractured during normal use. The club fractured through its cast aluminum alloy hosel. Optical analysis revealed casting pores through 20% of the hosel thickness. Mechanical properties were determined from characterization results, then used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It discusses the degradation of various protective systems, such as corrosion inhibitors and lubricants. The article describes the failure analysis of steel, iron, copper, aluminum, and their alloys. It also discusses the probes available to monitor conditions relevant to MIC in industrial systems...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and the unaffected cladding were compositionally similar and met the requirements of AISI type 317L stainless steel. The intermediate bond layer was a nickel-iron alloy. The corrosion deposits were primarily sulfur-bearing oxides of chromium, iron, and nickel. Results of chemical and SEM/EDS analyses...