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ion-beam-assisted deposition

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-surface region, with the exception of hydrogen and helium. Thus, the technique is ideal for evaluation of contaminated surfaces and thin coatings. Depth profiling of composition can be accomplished by step-wise progressive removal of material from a surface using an ion beam, normally of argon ions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is similar to evaporative coating in that the result is a few monolayers of a metal being deposited across the surface of the sample. However, in this instance, the metal atoms are not removed from the source by evaporation but rather by bombardment from heavy argon ions in a manner analogous to sand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of material from a surface using an ion beam, normally of argon ions, followed by Auger analysis. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy techniques are used to detect secondary ions created by the interaction of an ion beam with a material. Thus, when an ion beam, as used in AES analysis for depth profiling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., specific i njurious ions in the environment, such as chloride or hydroxyl ions, are associated with causing SCC of a given metal/alloy. The ions responsible for SCC need not be present in high concentrations, although a minimum local concentration is required. In some cases, SCC occurs only within...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of microscope, the pressure in the sample chamber is raised to a value on the order of 0.1 to 1 torr. Interaction of the electron beam with gas molecules in the region where the beam strikes the sample effectively creates a positively charged “cloud” of ions above the surface of the sample. This positive “cloud...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information on specific ions and substances, service environments, and preservice environments responsible for SCC. It details the analysis of SCC failures, which include on-site examination, sampling, observation of fracture surface characteristics, macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) 5.8 and 6.8 0.3–1.0 N/A N/A N/A <100 for 0.75 μm TiN at 5.84 GPa (c) 56 (1994) Magnetron sputtering TiN/NbN M50 Three-ball on rod (lubricated) 3.4 5.2 0.5 0.075–0.1 5200 kgf/mm 2 561–63 HRC 191 (d) 15 (d) ( L 10 in hours) 57 (1998) Ion beam DLHC M50 AISI 52100 AISI...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., operation, or fabrication. Nickel alloys have improved resistance to environmental cracking over steels and stainless steels, although nickel alloys are not immune to SCC. Stress-corrosion cracking of certain nickel alloys has occurred in high-temperature halogen ion environments, high-temperature waters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... + + e − → M Hydrogen evolution is a common cathodic reaction, because acid or acidic media are frequently encountered. Oxygen reduction is very common, because any aqueous solution in contact with air can produce this reaction. Metal ion reduction and metal deposition are less common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of thermal/environmental barrier coating (T/EBC) architecture showing primary environmental protective subsystems and the microstructure of coatings deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. CMAS, calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate. Reprinted with permission from Wiley Fig. 33 Effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the pipe ( Ref 58 ), and angled-beam UT tools, which leverage a similar principle ( Ref 59 ). More recently, a different type of ILI technology, called electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), was developed and offers specific advantages over more traditional UT tools, namely the ability to function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of a nearly continuous ferrite band in which microporosity was observed. 2% nital etch Fig. 55 Fracture surface of an electron beam weld in the web of an AISI 9310 steel gear. The weld fractured because of incomplete fusion. The incomplete fusion zone where fracture originated is shown at region...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the path length of the radiation. Thus, lighter areas on the plate correspond to the denser areas of the sample, whereas darker areas indicate a crack or defect running in the direction of the incident beam. The main advantages of radiography are its ability to detect internal discontinuities...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that are not resolvable with the light microscope. Thus, it is frequently used to determine pearlite interlamellar spacing or interparticle spacing, or examine the fine strengthening precipitates or dislocation substructure. The convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) technique can be used to identify precipitates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and metallurgical failures, environment-assisted cracking failures, and other damage mechanisms that induce cracking failures. Finally, the article provides information on inspection practices. chemical-processing plants environment-assisted cracking fabrication flaws failure analysis piping power plants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... laboratory analyses of specimens, should permit accurate determination of how and why the failure occurred. Techniques used during a preliminary examination should not affect any subsequent examinations. For instance, liquid-penetrant inspection can make it difficult to analyze for chlorides in deposits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in a short time was not feasible. Shafts were taken from stock and fatigue tested in a rotating-beam machine in a manner that would concentrate the stress at the circumferential groove. By this procedure, the fatigue limit for the shaft (survival for 10 7 cycles) was found to be approximately 480 MPa...