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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-existing quench cracks. Recommendations to prevent future failures include: ensuring that 100% magnetic particle inspections are conducted after bolts are tempered; using dull cadmium plate or an alternative to the electrode position process, such as vacuum cadmium plate or ion-plate or ion-plated aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the electroly Fig. 2 Anode assembly and corroded steel plate Abstract Nickel anodes failed in several electrolysis cells in a heavy-water upgrading plant. Dismantling of a cell revealed gouging and the presence of loosely attached black porous masses on the anode. The carbon steel top, plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... toward cracking. The solution passing through the vessel contained CO2-CO-H20, KHCO, and Cl− ions. Nondestructive testing revealed that the cracks originated in the heat-affected zone and propagated into the base metal and weld. Severe branching of the cracks characteristic of stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0065826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... between parallel collector plates. It was determined that the 1008 wires failed because of corrosion fatigue. It was decided to replace all of the wires in the two zones with the highest rates of failure with cold-drawn type 304 austenitic stainless steel wire. These expensive wires, however, failed after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Average chemical composition (in wt.%) of base plate and filler wire Table 1 Average chemical composition (in wt.%) of base plate and filler wire Elements, wt.% C Si Mn Cr Ni S P N 2 , ppm H 2 , ppm Fe Base plate (304 SS) 0.050 1.00 1.00 18.35 8.15 0.030 0.030 1000...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the borderline passivity of type 316L in hot dilute sulfuric acid (about 0.1%). Inaccuracy of the testing was attributed to the presence of cupric ions in the lead-lined vessel fluids, which had been released by corrosion of the copper coils. Careful control of both temperature and pH was recommended to reduce...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is evolved and the zinc dissolves, forming an acidic aqueous solution of zinc chloride. The reaction is: (Eq 1) Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl 2 + H 2 Since the chloride ion is not involved in the reaction, this equation can be written in the simplified form: (Eq 2) Zn + 2 H...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... alloys . Ulig’s Corrosion Handbook , 2nd edn , pp. 729 – 757 ( 2000 ) 2. Standard Test Method for Anions in Water by Chemically Suppressed Ion Chromatography , ASTM D4327 – 03 , ASTM , West Conshohocken, PA 3. Standard Test Method for Mercurous Nitrate Test for Copper Alloys , ASTM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Stainless steel is frequently used for bone fracture fixation in spite of its sensitivity to pitting and cracking in chloride containing environments (such as organic fluids) and its susceptibility to fatigue and corrosion fatigue. A 316L stainless steel plate implant used for fixation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... segregation in the original plate served as preferential corrosion sites. Had the tanks been hydrostatically tested in a proper manner, the pitting may not have occurred. Corrosion environments Nitric acid Sewage Solvents Storage tanks 304L UNS S30403 Pitting corrosion Biological corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metal ions into the body fluids, with possible toxic reactions. This aspect of fretting in aqueous electrolytes is discussed in detail subsequently. Fatigue failure is also possible ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 7 Fracture in an orthopedic bone plate. A failure was caused by fretting damage (loss...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... covers the operating principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray spectroscopy, and ion chromatography (IC). In addition, information on combustion analysis and inert gas fusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... amounted to 1 4 in. adjacent to the centre of the bottom end plate, to 3 16 in. on the shell adjacent to the protective layer of weld metal, and to 1 4 in. at the lower end of this layer. The first indication of latent trouble was provided by the 3 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Copper ions in solution should be eliminated or minimized. Chlorides Nuclear power generation Pressure vessels Welded joints ASME SA302-8 Stress-corrosion cracking A small leak was found in a nuclear steam-generator vessel constructed of 100-mm (4-in.) thick SA302, grade B, steel [0.25% C...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rivet holes and other areas of high stress when boiler water contained caustic soda (NaOH) or the boiler water chemistry was conducive to the formation of caustic soda ( Ref 4 ). In their 1926 paper, “The Cause and Prevention of Embrittlement of Boiler Plate,” researchers at the University of Illinois...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... taken was not reported. Examples of Factors Contributing to Galvanic Corrosion Ion Transfer Ion transfer results in the deposition of active and noncompatible deposits on a metal surface. For example, an aluminum stirrer plate used in water was extensively pitted because the water bath...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., compact, adherent and continuous while the outer layer is thinner, porous and powdery in texture. Counter currents of ions set up between the metal surface and the aqueous environment are responsible for the growth of the oxide layers ( Ref 2 ). Reactions at the metal/oxide interface result in the growth...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-to-metal (McKee) Fig. 2 Typical examples for orthopedic internal fixation devices (schematic). (a) and (b) Round hole bone plates (can be used with compression devices). (c) Classical Sherman bone plate. (d) to (g) Dynamic compression plates of various sizes. (h) Compression bone plate with glide...