1-20 of 37 Search Results for

ion milling

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract Within the first few months of operation of an 8 km (5 mile) long 455 mm (18 in.) diam high-pressure steam line between a coal-fired electricity-generating plant and a paper mill, several of the Inconel 600 bellows failed. The steam line operated at 6030 kPa (875 psi) and 420...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
..., including the purchasing specifications and observations and photographs taken during surveys enroute. A frequent conclusion of such investigations is that the alleged corrosion is of no significance or did not occur during the voyage. Mill scale Rusting Storage Hot-rolled steel Uniform corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The discussion covers the operating principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray spectroscopy, and ion chromatography (IC). In addition, information on combustion analysis and inert gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., have been available for some time and used in electronics failure analysis, but advancements in “cut-and-slice” technology will be advantageous for failure analysis of other materials. This technology uses the ion beam to mill away material in a desirable location and then the electron beam to perform...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A type 316 stainless steel pipe reducer section failed in service of bleached pulp stock transfer within 2 years in a pulp and paper mill. The reducer section fractured in the heat-affected zone of the flange-to-pipe weld on the flange side. The pipe reducer section consisted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., specific i njurious ions in the environment, such as chloride or hydroxyl ions, are associated with causing SCC of a given metal/alloy. The ions responsible for SCC need not be present in high concentrations, although a minimum local concentration is required. In some cases, SCC occurs only within...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Leaching Impingement Attack Example 5: Failure of Copper Alloy 443 Heat-Exchanger Tubes Secondary Manufacturing Techniques Effects of Inspection Procedures Example 1: Pitting of Stainless Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes Due to Chloride Ions in Flush Water Boxing of Tubing Example 6: SCC...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information on specific ions and substances, service environments, and preservice environments responsible for SCC. It details the analysis of SCC failures, which include on-site examination, sampling, observation of fracture surface characteristics, macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in.) in the unsplined section and was made of an American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) type 4340 steel (Unified Numbering System number G 43400) heat treated to a uniform hardness of 31 HRC. Fig. 1 Fracture face of broken splined shaft from disc refiner of a newsprint mill Cracks from at least seven...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of Design Effects of Welding Practices Effects of Brazing Practices Effects of Elevated Temperature Illustrations of Heat-Exchanger Failures Corrosion Resistance Example 1: Pitting of Stainless Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes due to Chloride Ions in Flush Water Sample Selection Visual...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... through a conducting medium or electrolyte to the other more cathodic metal (liberating hydrogen and/or causing a “reduction” of oxides). This action is seen in Fig. 2 where a couple is made up of steel and mill scale. Fig. 2 Breaks in mill scale (Fe 3 O 4 ) leading to galvanic corrosion of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). This action is seen in Fig. 2 where a couple is made up of steel and mill scale. Fig. 2 Breaks in mill scale (Fe 3 O 4 ) leading to galvanic corrosion of steel The three essential components for galvanic corrosion are: Materials possessing different surface potential A common...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of iron-nitrogen-boron-carbon ( Fig. 9 ) and some oxygen even after the spherical surface was argon gas “sputtered” (ion etched) to remove 10–15 atom layers of surface ( Table 2 ). Some manganese sulfide particles are in adjacent dimples on the same planar dimpled facet. Fig. 8 SEM micrograph shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Ions , Corros. Sci. , Vol 90 , 2015 , p 522 – 528 10.1016/j.corsci.2014.10.023 52. Reffass M. , Sabot R. , Jeannin M. , Berziou C. , and Refait P. , Effects of NO 2 -Ions on Localised Corrosion of Steel in NaHCO 3 + NaCl Electrolytes , Electrochim. Acta , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 64 – 69 49. Linhardt P. and Mori G. , “ MIC by Manganese Oxidizers in a Paper Mill ,” Paper 04601, Corrosion 2004, NACE International , 2004 50. Pope D.H. , Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Internal Aspects of Natural Gas Industry Pipelines and Associated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... indicates that, statistically, it is one of the least likely causes of failure in power-plant equipment. Defective Material Defective material does not always cause a component to fail soon after being put into service. Figure 1 shows cracking at the root of a longitudinal mill defect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Material Defect in an Automotive Coil Spring Example 3: Preexisting Hot Mill Rolling Crack Fabrication errors or deficiencies often result in spring failures. The most common of these are: Split wire, usually caused by overdrawing of the wire Tool marks Arc burns, sometimes occurring...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the rate of arrival of X at the cathodic surface, a buildup of metal ions, M + , at the anode, or a buildup of reduced oxidant, X n/m− , at the cathode. Because metals are good electrical conductors, the cathodic and anodic processes can occur at different locations on a metal surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... not be attributed to an SCC mechanism. It is universally accepted that SCC of austenitic stainless steel usually entails the presence of chloride ions. Since at no stage of coil processing, handling and transportation was the exposure to any chloride species involved and in absence of tangible evidences of chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... stage of construction, including mill processing, fabrication, shipping, and erection. Imperfections do not always result in failure and are, in fact, a relatively infrequent cause of failures of pressure vessels during operation. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes recognize that perfection...