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ion implantation

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 28 Effect of ion implantation on the coefficient of friction in fretting of IMI 550 titanium alloy at 500 °C (930 °F) More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... and, as consequence, the repassivation of the protective oxide film. Movement of metal ions or H+ ions from the bottom of the pit is restricted, and, as a result, the pH of the bottom of the pit is lowered and the pitting process is further accelerated. 12 Corrosion of metal implants is critical because it can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
.... 4 Of all the ionic components of blood plasma and interstitial fluids, the chlorine ions are typically the most aggressive to metal implants. Several types of chloride-induced corrosion attacks have been reported to affect stainless steel implants; pitting, intergranular corrosion, and crevice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... reported cases of increased metal ion release rate resulting from device implantation, local or systemic increases in metal ion concentration can be used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of metal components in vivo ( Ref 23 , 25 ). Multiple medical conditions have been linked to the release of corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... make the dissolution of metal ions difficult and so may delay corrosion and wear and also minimize the loosening of implants from bone. References References 1. Smith G.K and Black J. : “ Models for Systemic Effects of Metallic Implants ,” Proc. Int. Symp. on Retrieval...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the biological environment. Figure 3 indicates the ionic composition of blood plasma and interstitial and intracellular fluids. Of the components shown, the chlorine ions are the most critical for metal implants. The normal pH of the body liquids is about neutral—in the range of 7.2 to 7.4 pH ( Ref 10...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is evolved and the zinc dissolves, forming an acidic aqueous solution of zinc chloride. The reaction is: (Eq 1) Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl 2 + H 2 Since the chloride ion is not involved in the reaction, this equation can be written in the simplified form: (Eq 2) Zn + 2 H...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., clutches, spindles, and seals; in press fits on shafts; and in universal joints, base plates, shackles, and orthopedic implants. Generally, fretting occurs at contacting surfaces that are intended to be fixed in relation to each other but that actually undergo minute alternating relative motion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... from the surface and also has the effect of implanting the primary ions into the surface. The nature of this technique makes it feasible for analyzing trace amounts of substances; however, extensive knowledge of the sputtering rate is needed in conjunction with calibration of the obtained signals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reaction occurs in which hydrogen gas is evolved and the zinc dissolves, forming an acidic aqueous solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ): (Eq 1) Zn + 2 HCl → Zn Cl 2 + H 2 Because the chloride ion is not involved in the reaction, this equation can be written in a simplified form...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for implants. However, metals behave differently in different environments. The relative positions of metals and alloys in the galvanic series can vary significantly from one environment to another. The position of alloys in the galvanic series for seawater is not necessarily valid in nonsaline solutions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses the operating principles, advantages, and limitations of scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy that are used to analyze the surface chemistry of plastics. atomic force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as a first approximation the galvanic series is useful for implants. However, metals behave differently in different environments. The relative positions of metals and alloys in the galvanic series can vary significantly from one environment to another. The position of alloys in the galvanic series...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The more common ones, which are described briefly in this section, are x-ray analysis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Energy-Dispersive X-Ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-tuning the surface chemistry of these layered silicates through ion-exchange reactions with organic and inorganic cations ( Ref 34 ). The physical mixing of natural layered silicates and elastomers can lead to an immiscible multicomponent system with no enhancement in the material property. The pristine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on shafts; and in universal joints and orthopedic implants. Generally, fretting occurs at contacting surfaces that are intended to be fixed in relation to each other but that actually undergo small oscillating motion usually induced by vibration. Other situations concern cyclic thermal dilatation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In this type of microscope, the pressure in the sample chamber is raised to a value on the order of 10 to 250 Pa (0.1 to 2 torr). Interaction of the electron beam with gas molecules in the region where the beam strikes the sample effectively creates a positively charged “cloud” of ions above the surface...