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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract AISI type 410 stainless steel tube bundles in a heat exchanger experienced leakage during hydrostatic testing even before being in service. The inside surfaces of the tubes was observed to have been pitted. Chloride-ion pitting was revealed by the undercutting in the cross section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Ion Chromatography Ion chromatography (IC) can be used to identify ions present in solution and to quantitatively determine the concentrations of the ions. The majority of IC uses an ion-exchange column, a suppressor device, and a conductivity detector. A high-pressure pump is used to pump...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of bacteria and estimation of calcium and magnesium. This study claims that the scale formation is due to CPB in cooling water system. The formation of low pH by bacteria on the heat exchanger tubes encourages the distribution of Ca 2+ ions, where the formation of OH − may encourage the pH...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of chlorides in the hydrostatic test water. Example 1: Pitting of Stainless Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes Due to Chloride Ions in Flush Water Many tube bundles in a heat exchanger fabricated from AISI type 410 stainless steel experienced leakage during hydrostatic testing. The tubes had not yet been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., or phase changes in service. Impact tests indicate brittle tendencies. Example 1 describes pitting in ferritic stainless steel heat-exchanger tubes caused by the presence of chlorides in the hydrostatic test water. Example 1: Pitting of Stainless Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes due to Chloride Ions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of MIC Case 1—Failure of a Stainless Steel Heat Exchanger due to Poor Procedures Background Findings Discussion Findings Conclusion Discussion Conclusion Case 2—Failure of Bypass Pipeline due to Poor Operations Background Conclusion Discussion Discussion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-fourth of the wall thickness through a solution-annealed structure, showing evidence of some cold work at the inner surface. The water in this heat exchanger was of sufficient purity that corrosion had not been anticipated. The water conditions were: Temperature: 285 °C (545 °F) Pressure: 7...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is evolved and the zinc dissolves, forming an acidic aqueous solution of zinc chloride. The reaction is: (Eq 1) Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl 2 + H 2 Since the chloride ion is not involved in the reaction, this equation can be written in the simplified form: (Eq 2) Zn + 2 H...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms of microbially induced or influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic materials as an introduction to the recognition, management, and prevention of microbiological corrosion failures in piping, tanks, heat exchangers, and cooling towers. It discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chromatography enables separation of ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to ion exchange. Ion chromatography retains analyte molecules on the column based on columbic (ionic) interactions. A calibrated prepared solution is used for the analysis. Anions typically analyzed are bromide, fluoride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-soluble salts from the corrosion products. Chemical analysis of the solution, using atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion-exchange chromatography, yielded Na K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl − , and SO 4 2 − , corresponding to deposits ranging from 2 to 10 mg/cm (0.045 to 0.227 oz/in. 2 ) of NaCl...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... attack at a water pipe joint involving dissimilar metals Figure 17 shows a 316 stainless steel tube that had carried cooling water in a heat exchanger. The outside had been in contact with oil entering the heat exchanger at approximately 80 °C (175 °F). Attack took place on the outside, as shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... , “The Role of Copper and Physico-chemical Factors in Steam Generator Tube Failures,” SE Electric Exchange , Beloxi, MS , April 1958 . Selected Reference Selected Reference • French D.N. , Failures of Boilers and Related Equipment , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the common structural metals and alloys. Impervious graphite, especially in heat-exchanger applications, is cathodic to the less noble metals and alloys. Carbon-filled polymers or metal-matrix composites can act as noble metals in a galvanic couple. Metal Ion Deposition Ions of a more noble metal may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the user to perform rapid, efficient separations of complex mixtures of organic, inorganic, pharmaceutical, and biochemical compounds. At the time of publication, there are several modes of LC (bonded-phase, liquid–liquid partition, liquid–solid adsorption, ion-exchange, ion-pair, and size-exclusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (emf) series is a table that lists in order the standard electrode potentials of specified electrochemical reactions. The potentials are measured against a standard reference electrode when the metal is immersed in a solution of its own ions at unit activity ( Table 1 ). Similar to the galvanic series...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... cross linking with calcium ions, followed by ion exchange with copper ions. When alginate concentration was increased from 1 to 4 wt%, the resulting 3D-printed parts showed excellent printability. Reduction with sodium borohydride resulted in excellent copper-concentration-dependent antimicrobial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that was essentially pure aluminum oxide, with small amounts of carbon and magnesium. Depth-profile studies of the fracture surface, using ion etching, revealed a uniform composition as a function of depth, with no additional elements detected as the etching progressed. A specific search for mercury was conducted...