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interstitial solid solutions

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of several types of failure in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “Stress-Corrosion Cracking,” “Liquid-Metal and Solid-Metal Induced Embrittlement,” “Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement,” “Corrosive Wear Failures,” “Biological Corrosion Failures,” and “High-Temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abbreviations and Symbols a crack length ac critical crack length at.% atomic percent A area; ratio of the alternating stress amplitude to the mean stress A cross-sectional area of weld A angstrom Accm in hypereutectoid steel, temperature at which cementite completes solution in austenite Ac1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and prevention of several types of failures in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “ Stress-Corrosion Cracking ,” “ Liquid Metal and Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement ,” “ Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement ,” “ Corrosive Wear Failures ,” “ Biological Corrosion Failures ,” and “ High...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... between hcp and bcc materials can vary depending on temperature and available slip systems. Rhombohedral Less symmetrical through triclinic Influence of degree of order (most to least ductile) Random solid solution Ordered or intermetallic compound Ionic compound Covalent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hydrogen embrittlement, liquid metal embrittlement, solid metal embrittlement, oxidation or reduction potentially in the grain boundaries, radiation embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking. Because the appearance of IG fracture is relatively easy to recognize, and because the causes are fairly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stress, an environment, and a susceptible material. Although manifest mostly in metals, it can also occur in other engineering solids, such as ceramics and polymers. Removal of or changes in any one of these three factors will often eliminate or reduce susceptibility to SCC and therefore are obvious ways...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the articles “ Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement ” and “ Liquid-Metal- and Solid-Metal-Induced Embrittlement ” in this Volume and to Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection , Volume 13A of the ASM Handbook , 2003. Stress-corrosion cracking develops when a susceptible metal or alloy is exposed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the nickel-iron matrix Deposition of graphite on the alloy surface in different orientations Growth of graphite into the metal phase by carbon atoms from the solid solution, attaching to graphite planes growing vertical to the metal surface Destruction of the metal phase by the inward-growing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... overload fracture can be influenced by various time- or temperature-dependent mechanisms, such as fatigue, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), liquid-metal embrittlement, solid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen embrittlement, and creep. In addition, transgranular cracks also can, at some point, follow a grain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or sectioning destroy evidence needed for failure analysis. Fracture of a part in service is often intimately associated with the type of environment to which the part was exposed. Active chemical environments include water, salt air, salt water, acid solutions, alkaline solutions, molten metal, and even...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of metal manifests itself in one of several ways. The types of interactions between hydrogen and metals include the formation of solid solutions of hydrogen in metals, molecular hydrogen, gaseous products from reactions between hydrogen and alloying or segregated impurity elements, or brittle intermetallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... liquids or gases Other forms of corrosion (e.g., localized corrosion) Depending on the type of hydrogen-metal interaction, hydrogen damage of metal manifests itself in one of several ways. The types of interactions between hydrogen and metals include the formation of solid solutions of hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface in different orientations Growth of graphite into the metal phase by carbon atoms from the solid solution, attaching to graphite planes growing vertical to the metal surface Destruction of the metal phase by the inward-growing graphite under transfer of metal particles into the “coke” layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article provides an overview of metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes and describes sources of failures in metal AM parts. It focuses on metal AM product failures and potential solutions related to design considerations, metallurgical characteristics, production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Such deviations from the nominal composition are due to convection currents in the liquid, gravity effects, and redistribution of the solute during the formation of dendrites. Solute rejection at the solid-liquid interface during dendrite formation typically occurs during solidification; thus, a compositional...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-intensity range for the minimum data point on the crack growth rate data curve. Beta Factor and Crack Geometry The dimensionless factor, β, allows the effects of geometry to be included in the equation for stress-intensity factor: K I = σ π a β Beta solutions are available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to the effective solidus temperature. In many cases, the effective solidus may be well below the equilibrium solidus due to the effect of solute and impurity segregation ( Ref 9 ). This type of cracking can potentially occur in all fusion welding metallurgies. Cold cracking (i.e., hydrogen-assisted cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... segregation originates in alloys during the solidification stage. Such deviations from the nominal composition are due to convection currents in the liquid, gravity effects, and redistribution of the solute during the formation of dendrites. Solute rejection at the solid-liquid interface during dendrite...