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internal-state variable modeling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for estimating probabilities of failure. In these methods, the random variables are represented with distributions and sampled to be run into usually deterministic (and hopefully state-of-the-art) physical models. These methods originated from the development of the Monte Carlo simulation method and work...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... always consists of three elements: Failure model definition—generically called a “limit state” in probabilistic analysis Random variable definitions—variables in the limit state that are considered random Probabilistic computations These elements are described in the next several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and the number of cycles to initiation of crack. These damage models are uniaxial and it is difficult to handle how process parameters and design changes will affect the multiaxial stress–strain state under loading. Successful implementation of these damage models requires the determination of existing load...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure modes must form a logically complete set of the possible error states for the variable type. For example, a Boolean variable with validity flag would have the following failure modes: “value true when it should be false and validity flag set to valid,” “value false when it should be true...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... occurring in the material. The field of continuum damage mechanics (CDM) is aimed at capturing the effect of these microscopic changes on the macroscopic behavior through the introduction of internal-state variables. The objective here is to model the process of damage accumulation so that it can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and mechanical strain. Fatigue damage at high temperatures develops as a result of inelastic deformation where the strains are nonrecoverable. Therefore, TMF damage is complex, as it may accumulate over a range of temperatures and strains under both steady-state and/or transient conditions. Thermomechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., specimen geometry, and so forth. Figure 5 demonstrates the effect of plate thickness, which is governed by the stress state in the plate. For thin plates, the prevailing stress state is plane stress and fracture toughness is represented by K c . As the plate thickness increases, the stress state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... normal stress reaches the yield strength of the material. Tresca’s theory states that yield at a point begins when the maximum shear stress equals the shear stress in a tension specimen when it begins to yield. Another common failure model is the von Mises criterion, which is based on a determination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: Ref 15 Fig. 10 Ship’s service turbine generator casing showing critical planes A , B , and C on which stresses were determined by finite-element analysis during transient and steady-state conditions. Dimensions are given in inches. Source: Ref 28 Fig. 11 Ship’s service...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rates are characteristics of severe wear. Examples of mild and severe sliding wear are shown in Fig. 3 . Most types of wear mechanisms have mild and severe forms, and most materials can exhibit both types of behavior. Transitions between these two states are often sharp and can be associated with most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The article reviews fatigue assessment methods incorporated in international design and post construction codes and standards, with special emphasis on evaluating welds. Specifically, the stress-life approach, the strain-life approach, and the fracture mechanics (crack growth) approach are described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are used ( Ref 23 ). The type of heat source and its configuration affects the size and temperature of the melt pool, the degree of mixing within the pool, and the subsequent rates of solidification and subsequent solid-state transformations. Figure 1 plots some of the metal fusion-based AM processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... depends on the temperature, loading rate, state of stress, and degree of constraint. In an ideal material containing neither inclusions nor second phases, ductile fracture would be expected to occur by slip and possibly twinning and result in complete reduction in area ( Fig. 1 ). Alternately...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... 8(b) is parallel to the nominal stress, it would have to be activated by the local state of stress within a grain. However, the stress is normal to the cleavage crack nucleus for the other orientations. Figures 8 ( a – c ) assume that both twins are nucleated at the same time. Figure 8(d) shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... accidents American National Standards Institute standards for products Underwriters Laboratories standards for products Local and state building codes National electrical codes published by the NFPA National fire codes published by the NFPA ASTM International standards International...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and analyses tend to be simplified as much as possible through the use of two-dimensional (2-D) analyses, symmetry, linearity, and steady-state conditions. As computing power increased, so did the complexity of finite element modeling and analysis techniques. The first analyses and elements available were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the starting and stopping of the compressor over the life of the product. To accelerate the test, the pressures in the system are increased, stated as low and high side pressure. Typical high and low side pressures under normal conditions are 10 kgf/cm 2 and 0 kgf/cm 2 (designated 10/0), respectively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in northeastern United States results in vehicle electrical problems, traced to corroded electrical contacts. Wear Incompatible wear couple is specified in the design of an injection mold/ejector pin assembly, resulting in galling and seizure. Improper melting and hot working processes lead to poor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... components, it is important to thoroughly gather information regarding the material state, the stress state(s), and the environmental conditions that may have influenced the fracture. Tables 1 to 3 provide useful, general information that can serve as a guide to the analyst. Liquid metals may also...