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internal state variable approach

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... stress state during the process provides a systematic approach for simultaneous modeling of billet deformation behavior and die stress and strain distribution during the forming process. From the point of view of metal-forming process, the flow behavior of billet material, which mainly depends upon...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamental variables involved in fatigue-life assessment, which describe the effects and interaction of material behavior, geometry, and stress history on the life of a component. It compares the safe-life approach with the damage-tolerance approach, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is important for design, reliability analysis, and failure analysis. This stress analysis is usually based on the mechanics-of-materials approach but could also use the theory-of-elasticity approach in some cases. There are many references in the literature that describe the state of stress for common...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fault trees are used to unify the analysis of failure modes caused by design errors, manufacturing and maintenance processes, materials, and so on, and to assess the probability of failure mode occurrence. It concludes with information on some of the approaches to automating the FMEA. failure mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0090030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... near the bore emanating from a hard alpha (HA) defect. Such defects can result from occasional upsets during the vacuum melting of titanium. These nitrogen-rich alpha titanium anomalies are brittle and often have associated microcracks and microvoids. A probabilistic damage tolerance approach...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... but also the details of the approaches used to obtain a solution. While this is the case, there are some general considerations and approaches that can be of use in resolving or avoiding wear problems. Fig. 1 Examples of wear showing loss of material, changes in dimension, and changes in appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) ( Ref 25 , 26 ). A probabilistic analysis always consists of three elements: Failure model definition—generically called a “limit state” in probabilistic analysis Random variable definitions—variables in the limit state that are considered random Probabilistic computations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will not occur unless σ max exceeds the yield strength of the material, σ Y . To ensure this, a factor of safety ( S ) can be introduced to account for material variability and/or unanticipated greater service loading. The strength-of-materials approach is a good approach for materials with no defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of gross slip cycle during the whole test duration and defining the percent gross slip (%GS) parameter as ( Ref 49 ): (Eq 7) % GS = N ( A > A t ) N Stating that: PSR: %GS = 0% MFR: 0% < %GS < 100% GSR: %GS = 100% Hence, by using this approach...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... commonly used to convert one hardness scale to another. As stated in the “Principle of Method of Conversion” in ASTM International E 140, “Indentation hardness is not a single fundamental property but a combination of properties, and the contribution of each to the hardness number varies with the type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of an existing crack can be expected if: (Eq 24) Δ K = Δσ π · a / Q · M < Δ K th ASTM International E 647 defines Δ K th as that asymptotic value of Δ K at which da / dN approaches zero. For most materials, an operational, although arbitrary, definition of Δ K th...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is usually based on the mechanics of materials approach but could also use the theory of elasticity approach in some cases. There are many references in the literature that describe the state of stress for common geometries ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ), so in many instances it is not necessary to do original...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysts of methodologies and tools for the more common life-limiting, elevated-temperature failure mechanisms. Gas turbine blades and piping and tubing components were selected to demonstrate typical life assessment approaches for common elevated-temperature failure mechanisms, although the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and recalculation of the loads and stresses in gusset plates of all steel truss bridges in the United States and led to significant changes in state and federal rules for evaluating, modifying, and maintaining new and existing bridge structures. The objective evaluation also dispelled a strongly held belief...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... no crack extension during service can be permitted. The fatigue-crack threshold is a function of a number of variables, including the material, the test conditions, the R-ratio, and the environment. ASTM E 647 defines Δ K th as that asymptotic value of Δ K at which da / dN approaches zero. For most...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This article cannot detail the many particulars of materials selection, because every industry or component application has many specific requirements, guidelines, or procedures, some of which may be mandated by federal or state statute. Therefore, coverage is more conceptual with general discussions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... standards for products Underwriters Laboratories standards for products Local and state building codes National electrical codes published by the NFPA National fire codes published by the NFPA ASTM International standards International Organization for Standardization standards...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the measured d -spacing versus sin 2 ψ, with careful selection of the measurement directions, ψ and ϕ. A variety of mathematical models and measurement approaches have been proposed to evaluate the stress-tensor components of interest ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). Residual-stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the distant material density was 0.940 g/cm 3 (0.03396 lb/in. 3 ). Both values are at the lower end of the range for this class of polyethylene. There are several loads which could contribute to the stress state causing crack growth. These include internal residual stresses from processing, stress...