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internal normalization method

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0048350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... surfaces by electron microscopy at high magnification. Fatigue failures were concluded to be caused by vibrations resulting from normal steam flow at high steam demand. Too rigid support near the steam drum resulted in concentration of vibratory strain in the regions of failure. The method of supporting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...) supported the conclusions that the lever broke at a cold shut extending through approximately 95% of the cross section. The normally applied load constituted an overload of the remainder of the lever. Recommendations included adding magnetic-particle inspection to the inspection procedures for this cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... at the bond. The failures appeared to be predominantly located between the silver layer and the uranium substrate. Normal fracture location of specimens taken from similar components was at the silver/silver bond interface. Laboratory testing revealed that the uranium/silver joint was susceptible to premature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... volume into small elements (normally tetrahedra or hexahedra), BEA only discretizes the boundary. Both methods, however, employ continuum material models and produce only approximations. In general, accuracy improves as the number of elements increases. Convergence techniques are generally employed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... The material was a mild steel in the normalized condition. The appearance of the fracture indicated failure was due to bending stresses. The absence of any fillet radius at the reduction in diam provided a region of stress concentration from which fatigue cracks developed. Diameter Hoists Radii Shafts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ) for the construction of the crack growth resistance curve ( J-R curve) of polymers. Known as the normalization method, it relies on the representation of J vs Δ a ( Ref 38 – 40 ), trying to overcome some of the problems of the multi-specimen methodology, which are mainly based on uncertainties associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and flaw size at failure, coupled with quantitative SEM fractography using striation spacing methods, revealed that the cyclic stress amplitudes just prior to failure were much larger than expected, in this particular case. Subsequent improvements in fan design and fabrication have effectively alleviated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... normally or nearly so to the main hoop stress direction. Residual-stress measurements were made using a hole-drilling technique and strain gage rosettes. Large tensile axial residual stresses were measured at nearly every location investigated with a large residual hoop stress was found for locations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Several diesel-engine rocker levers (malleable iron similar to ASTM A 602, grade M7002) failed at low hours in overspeed, over-fuel, highly loaded developmental engine tests. Identical rocker levers had performed acceptably in normal engine tests. The rocker levers were failing through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the material being inspected. This method is seldom used on composite materials because of the material anisotropy and because defects of interest tend to be parallel to the inspection surface and therefore most easily detected with a normal incidence beam. Through-transmission Similar to the pitch...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... be attributed to the initial deformation or to straightening, rapid fracture may have been induced by residual stresses contributing to the normal spectrum of cyclic stresses. Recommendations included stress-relief annealing after cold straightening, refinishing of the surface, thus reducing fracturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... irregularity, birefringence, and internal contamination must also be considered. These characteristics are a function of the material and the fabrication method. Gloss and color also are affected by the base material and measured as optical properties. optical components optical properties optical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... been in service at ORNL. Examination Methods and Procedures Examination of Fragmented and Sound Adapters A normal BFA and the fragments from the exploded BFA are shown in Figure 4 . The weight of a normal BFA is 40.4 g. The total weight of the recovered fragments was 27.3 g, or a 67.6...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., the forgings were normalized, hardened and tempered to 28 to 32 HRC to increase fatigue strength. The quenching procedure was changed to produce a more complete martensite transformation and to increase the ratio of yield strength to tensile strength. The surfaces were inspected by the magnetic-particle method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that chemical segregation contributed to the hard areas. Postweld normalized heat treatment apparently did not sufficiently reduce the hardness of these areas. Oil field equipment, corrosion Pipe, corrosion Sour gas, environment Sulfide stress cracking Sulfides, environment Welded joints, corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 1. “ Test Methods for Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics ,” D256-10, Annual Book of ASTM Standards , ASTM International , 2018 2. “ Test Method for Determining the Charpy Impact Resistance of Notched Specimens of Plastics ,” D6110-18, Annual Book of ASTM Standards...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in equilibrium. (b) Internal force, F i , on cut surface. (c) Components of Δ F on Δ A If the force Δ F is resolved into mutually perpendicular components such that Δ N is a component normal to the area, Δ A , and Δ V is parallel to Δ A , then the normal component of stress, σ, and shear component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the opportunity to overcome some of the size, orientation, and reinforcement limitations of normal injection molding. Injection compression molding avoids the pressure peak obtained during normal injection. This allows larger parts to be made on the same tonnage machine as smaller parts. Internal stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Tree was theoretically built, and the structural variations of the failed encapsulant were characterized compared with the normal encapsulant, using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), x-ray energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), and differential scanning calorimetry coupled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and calibrated using the back-surface-reflection method to determine whether adequate ultrasonic penetration was available. Areas of indications were noted at approximately midheight and adjacent to the bore area. An axial angle-beam inspection from the outside was performed, mainly in the area of indications...