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intermetallic phase

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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 33 Sigma (σ) phase in cast heat-resistant alloy HH, type II. Intermetallic phases, such as σ, can greatly reduce the ductility of many high-temperature alloys in service at temperatures from 480 to 955 °C (900 to 1750 °F). More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 57 Sigma (σ) phase in cast heat-resistant alloy HH, type II. Intermetallic phases, such as σ, can greatly reduce the ductility of many high-temperature alloys in service at temperatures from 480 to 955 °C (900 to 1750 °F). More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 30 Braze joint failure (Example 17). (a) Schematic of failed end of expansion joint braze where an intermetallic phase formed. (b) Cross section showing the intermetallic layer (arrow). Original magnification: 15×. (c) Cracked intermetallic phase between the copper braze (top More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... boundaries Intermetallic phases Muffle furnaces Overheating Nickel-base high-temperature alloy (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A brazing-furnace muffle 34 cm (13 1 4 in.) wide, 26 cm (10 3 8 in.) high, and 198 cm (78 in.) long, was fabricated from nickel-base high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... indicated severe service conditions, a proprietary alloy similar to AG1, but containing 3% nickel, was recommended. Brazed joints Brazing alloys Heating equipment Intermetallic phases Cu-14Ag-5P 90Cu-10Ni Joining-related failures Dealloying/selective leaching Persistent leakage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... sections in this article. Lastly, it is common for titanium brazed joints to have a composite structure consisting of intermetallics, solid solutions, and eutectic constituents. Phase compositions and the volume of different phases depend on brazing temperature, holding time, cooling rate, width...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... intermetallic compounds found in the aluminum-iron phase diagram. Similar compositional variations were noted at the aluminum/brass interface. It was concluded that the failure of the electrical junction due to extreme heating was related to the formation of intermetallic compounds at the current carrying...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as the presence of shrinkage voids. As an age-hardenable aluminum alloy, the aluminum matrix will have precipitated intermetallic phases dispersed throughout; these phases will appear gray and black, as seen in Fig. 7 , according to a comparative microstructure which was etched by Keller’s reagent [ 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... 85×. Microprobe Analysis Microprobe analysis was used to determine the morphology and composition of the matrix and phases. Typical microstructure of NARloy-Z was observed away from the banded region ( Fig. 3 ). The second-phase intermetallic located at the grain boundaries had...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Examples of some of the microstructures of the failed couplings (transverse, T; longitudinal, L). (a) A fine, homogeneous dispersion of the intermetallic precipitate phases κ IV , κ IIII , and κ III throughout the α matrix. (b) α-matrix grain boundaries decorated with an intermittent More
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 3 Backscatter electron micrograph of the MCC away from the hot-gas wall, showing normal microstructure with clean grain boundaries and second-phase intermetallics with a composition of Cu-10Ag-22Zr. 236×. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... intergranular phase, resulting in failure by brittle fracture at low impact loads during handling and storage. Recommendation included manufacture of the pipe with aluminized instead of galvanized steel sheet for the combustion chamber. Galvanized steels Heating equipment Intermetallic Zinc compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Little distortion evident • Intergranular or transgranular • May relate to notches at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion • Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... phase. The sigma phase consists of an intermetallic compound of approximately 50 at. % Cr which forms from the solid solution during slow cooling or during extended annealing below 800°to 900°C (depending upon the other components of the alloy). The formation of sigma phase is accompanied by a decrease...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... was taken from the deeply attacked area ( Fig. 1 ). The corrosion was occurring along grain boundaries. Micrographs from these regions showed σ phase present in the ferrite ( Fig. 1b ) and also carbides ( Fig. 1c ). A 10 N KOH electrolytic etch was used to bring out the σ phase, while Murakami's reagent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... instabilities, such as transgranular-intergranular fracture transition, recrystallization, aging or overaging (phase precipitation or decomposition of carbides, borides, or nitrides), intermetallic-phase precipitation, delayed transformation to equilibrium phases, order-disorder transition, general oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... change of slope in a rupture life curve can occur from metallurgical instabilities, such as TG-IG fracture transition, recrystallization, aging or overaging (phase precipitation or decomposition of carbides, borides, and nitrides), intermetallic-phase precipitation, delayed transformation to equilibrium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for 10 s. In Fig. 11 , it is seen that the microstructure of the cylinder head material consisted of a solid solution of aluminum-silicon (rich phase is made of aluminum) and a uniform distribution of a eutectic silicon phase and also intermetallic phases. In general, the microstructure conforms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at the assembly level. This article covers the properties of solder alloys and the corresponding intermetallic compounds. It includes the dominant failure modes introduced during the solder joint manufacturing process and in field-use applications. The corresponding failure mechanism and root-cause analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... microstructure consisting of a copper-rich a solid solution and a variety of intermetallic phases of different compositions, sizes, and shapes. 6 , 7 These intermetallics are designated κ I (irregularly shaped Fe-rich particles up to 50 µm across), κ II (∼5 µm Fe 3 Al particles), κ III (lamellar NiAl...