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intermediate phases

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the causes of babbit bush failure in the process of steam turbine operation for the effect of grain size of babbit constitutive phases on bush wear resistance. In addition, the work was completed to select a technology of forming an intermediate layer between the babbit bush and the bearing base that would...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... after and without intermediate polish, the section was etched at 2 V terminal potential in a 10n solution of caustic soda which in addition etched and colored the sigma phase. The result for the broken recuperator is reproduced in Figs. 2 , and for the unused one in Figs. 3 . Accordingly, the finned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Persistent leakage was experienced from copper tube heaters which formed part of dairy equipment. Metallurgical examination of the brazed joints showed them to have suffered a preferential corrosion attack. This resulted in the phosphide phase of the brazing alloy being corroded away...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... environment, the failure involves a particular roll or a specific batch of rolls. This paper provides a microstructural insight into the cause of premature breakage of a second-intermediate Sendzimir mill drive roll used at a stainless steel sheet rolling plant under the Steel Authority of India Limited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... intermediate strength and toughness ( Fig. 3a ). Coarse grains of ferrite are observed indicative of low carbon ferrite phases ( Fig. 3a ). Feathery bainite forms just below the nose of the time temperature transformation curve [ 2 ] at intermediate cooling rates. Microstructure of a similar part of higher...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... circulation. Superheaters heat saturated steam from the steam drum to the main steam conditions (superheated steam). Reheaters heat superheated steam, which cooled when it partially expanded in a ST, back to the main steam operating temperature. Multiple pressure levels of steam (low, intermediate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in as-received condition. (a) Stage 2. (b) Stage 3 Fig. 4 Stereomicrographs showing the uniform corrosion of the tubes. 10×. (a) Stage 2. (b) Stage 3 Fig. 5 Stereomicrographs of the failed tube from Stage 3 showing the local burst and intermediate stage of burst. 10× Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as the behavior of certain nickel-base alloys. The effect of sigma phase (a hard, brittle intermediate phase) on alloy U-700 creep strength at 815 °C (1500 °F) is shown in Fig. 12 . Here, a pronounced “break” is shown in the rupture curve starting at approximately 1000 h. Sigma phase was identified in this alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of crack-like defects, stress concentration at the weld toe, residual tensile stress, and lack of penetration contributed to a shorter fatigue crack initiation phase and premature failure. concentric pipe fatigue fracture welding defects steel window-type fracture optical emission spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the glassy, or brittle, and relatively flexible phases of a polymer. This temperature, in turn, depends on the average molecular weight of a thermoplastic polymer or the degree of crosslinking for a thermoset polymer. Polymers used above their T g can readily creep under an applied load, whereas those...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... thermal treatment. These large grains offered less resistance to fatigue and SCC. In addition, evidence of titanium-carbo-nitrides was detected at the grain boundaries of this material that was prohibited according to the governing specification. This phase is formed at higher thermal treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... pipelines, lead to the conclusion that intercrystalline corrosion in steels involved precipitation of a surplus phase at grain boundaries. Intercrystalline corrosion in austenitic stainless steels due to precipitation of chromium carbides during conditions generated due to welding and ways to avoid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... obtained of corrosion products and phases present using energy dispersive, fluorescent x-ray analysis spectrometry (EDS). In TEM and STEM, electron diffraction patterns were obtained from fine particles in the alloys. All of the microstructural information was used to attempt to identify the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... helical gears. (These are sometimes colloquially called herringbone gears if there is no gap between the helixes.) The photo is of the intermediate shaft gear and pinion and the low-speed gear. With the helixes running in opposite directions, the axial thrust loads should balance each other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... corroded part of the tubes had a trench-like appearance on the roof (or crown) of the tube which also coincided with the bottom of the welded fin. Since the tubes are horizontal and there is two-phase flow, the corrosion had occurred in the steam phase. An identical example of boiler tube corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... occurs in strongly carburizing atmospheres with carbon activities greater than 1 ( a c »1) and at intermediate temperatures between 400 and 900 °C (750 and 1650 °F). Although metal dusting has occurred at temperatures as high as 1095 °C (2000 °F) in strongly reducing gaseous environments, metal dusting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the presence of a second phase when they occur truly in the grain boundary. However, very small dimples can be seen on grain-boundary facets. Dimpled IG fracture can occur from void formation in the grain boundaries or from the mechanism of microvoid coalescence in the region adjacent to the grain boundary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... the crack. Often, in iron-base alloys, the crack contains a metallic filament enclosed by a chromium-rich layer. The crack zone is usually hard (Vickers Hardness > 200 Hv). The hardness increase is attributed to intermediate temperature-aging reactions that are often accelerated by prior cold work...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., with some well-known disruptive transformations, as for silica or zirconia. Other transitions are the decomposition of mixed oxides (e.g., ZrSiO 4 → ZrO 2 + SiO 2 ), the devitrification of glassy phases, and the crystallization of high-temperature phases for amorphous or poorly crystallized ones (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or block loading (see Fig. 52 ) Striated surface caused by second phases in microstructure (see Fig. 51 ) Grooves or flutes SCC TGF Artifacts (mud cracks) Dried liquid on surface. May indicate incomplete cleaning of surface. If in the as-received condition, may indicate fluids from...