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intergranular cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... on the cross were located in wide bands running circumferentially below the cross-to-cap weld and above the cap-to-discharge-pipe weld. The material was found to conform to the requirements both in terms of hardness and strength. Intergranular cracks filled with oxide were observed on metallographic analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract The presence of subsurface cracks in a longitudinal weld seam of an AISI type 316 stainless steel heat-exchanger shell was revealed by radiographic testing. Numerous intergranular cracks associated with the root pass of the weld, which had propagated both parallel and normal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., testing, and inspection. The crack indications were found only on one side of the boss and on the lower portion of the hot-spun dome region. The metallographic specimens revealed triangular voids and severe intergranular cracks. The cracks displayed the glossy surfaces typical of melted and resolidified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the welds in a highly sensitized state. The sensitized material lost corrosion resistance, became embrittled along the grain boundaries, and finally failed by intergranular cracking. Use of type 410 martensitic stainless steel was recommended. Embrittlement Heat-affected zone Sensitizing Vanes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and metallographic examination of sections etched with Vilella's reagent supports the conclusions that failure of the bellows occurred by intergranular fatigue cracking. Secondary degrading effects on the piping existed as well. Recommendations included the acceptability of Type 321 stainless steel (provided open...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that the fracture was caused by intergranular corrosion/stress-corrosion cracks that initiated from the external surface of the pipe reducer section. Contributory factors were the sensitized condition of the flange and the concentration of corrosive elements from the bleach stock plant environment on the external...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Two AISI type 316 stainless steel dished ends failed through the formation of intergranular stress-corrosion cracks (IGSCC) within a few months of service. The dished ends failed in the straight portions near the circumferential welds that joined the ends to the cylindrical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract An intergranular stress-corrosion cracking failure of 304 stainless steel pipe in 2000 ppm B as H3BO3 + H2O at 100 deg C was investigated. Constant extension rate testing produced an intergranular type failure in material in air. Chemical analysis was performed on both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the welds and heat-affected zones (HAZs). Fracture/crack morphology was brittle and primarily intergranular and deposits at crack tips were primarily iron oxides with significant amounts of sodium compounds. On these bases, the cracking was characterized as intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... investigation revealed that the cracking was caused by the combination of incorrect grinding procedure, the presence of hydrogen, and fatigue. The grinding damage generated tensile stresses in the steel, which caused intergranular cracking during the plating cycle. The intergranular cracks were initiation sites...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Longitudinal cracks were located near the opening of the female ends of each connector. A cross section showed intergranular cracking with multiple branching in one connector. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed intergranular cracking and separation of elongated grains. A cross section of connector...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The weld deposits were of type 347 stainless steel, and the flanges were type 304 stainless steel. Metallographic examination of the failed studs revealed that the HAZs contained regions of martensite and that intergranular cracks, which initiated at the stud surfaces during welding, propagated to complete...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracks showed intergranular cracks originating at weld toes and filled with oxidation product, which precluded determination of the cracking mechanism. All weldments exhibited high degrees of secondary precipitates, with original fabrication welds exhibiting higher apparent levels than repair welds. SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of a tube was removed and split, revealing a series of cracks, evenly spaced. Crack spacing coincided with fin spacing, indicating that stresses incurred during installation of the fins promoted failure. Metallographic examination showed intergranular, branched cracking, characteristic of stress corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the grip. Higher magnification inspection near the origin area revealed a flat, wood-like appearance. Scanning electron microscopy divulged the presence of substantial mud cracking and intergranular separation on the fracture surface. Metallographic examination revealed intergranular cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of a high-rise building. Fractographic and metallographic examination showed that the fractures occurred in a brittle manner from intergranular crack propagation. Laboratory and simulated environmental tests showed that an aqueous environment was necessary for the brittle fracture/cracking phenomenon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as the presence of deleterious intermetallic compounds within interdendritic regions. Macrohardness testing produced hardness values which are noticeably higher than standard hardness values for 712.0. The primary fracture surfaces indicate evidence of mixed-mode fracture, via intergranular cracking, cleaved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Several of the springs, made of 1.1 mm diam Inconel X-750 wire and used for tightening the interstage packing ring in a high-pressure turbine, were found broken after approximately seven years of operation. Intergranular cracks about 1.3 mm in depth and oriented at an angle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... intensity thresholds for environmentally assisted cracking. Al-Si bronze was found to be susceptible to subcritical intergranular cracking in air and seawater, whereas Ni-Al bronze was unaffected. Both materials, however, are susceptible to cracking in the presence of ammonia, although the subcritical crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... showed that the fracture was brittle and was initiated by an intergranular cracking mechanism. The mode of fracture outside the crack initiation zone was transgranular cleavage. No indication of fatigue was found. The failure was attributed to improper heat treatment during manufacture, which resulted...